Currently, the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes is the administration of insulin, but this is not a perfect solution. Since the body is unable to produce enough – or in some cases any – insulin on its own, individuals are tasked with carefully determining when and how much they need to keep blood sugar levels in check. This in itself can be challenging, and too much or too little insulin can lead to potentially life-threatening hyper- or hypoglycemia.
In addition to controlling blood sugar, insulin also helps regulate ketones within the blood. Ketones are created when lipids are broken down by the liver because the body is lacking glucose. Increased ketone levels can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Trouble controlling fat in the blood can put individuals at a greater risk for cardiovascular problems.
However, a recent study by researchers at the University of Geneva in Switzerland reveals that combining insulin with high doses of the protein S100A9 may improve regulation of glucose as well as lipids. Though it has only been tested in insulin-deficient diabetic mice thus far, the researchers are in the process of gaining approval for phase I human clinical trials. Other studies have already shown that there is a reduced risk of diabetes in individuals with higher levels of S100A9, so they are hopeful that this protein can play an integral role in diabetes management as well.
Another interesting discovery that the researchers made was that S100A9 was only effective when cells with TLR4 receptors were present as well. At this point, they are unsure exactly what the relationship is and why TLR4 is necessary for the process to work. However, their study leads the way toward reducing the amount of insulin necessary to effectively control blood glucose and ketone levels by combining it with the S100A9 protein.
Though not involved in this study, Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how it progresses once human clinical trials begin as it has the potential to impact treatment for millions of people living with type 1 diabetes. The DRC supports the advancement of research and treatment through providing critical funding to early career scientists pursuing novel research studies for the disease. Find out how to support these efforts and learn more about current projects by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.