It is not uncommon for researchers to use animal models for initial research before transitioning to human clinical trials. Many animalsâ€™ systems are biologically similar in nature to humans and respond in similar ways to various diseases and medications. Often mouse models are used for diabetes research, but other species such as nonhuman primates (NHP) are also advantageous. While various types of monkeys and baboons have been used to study diabetes pathogenesis and treatment, there was previously not a marmoset model.
In a recent study, researchers successfully induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in marmosets. They conducted a partial pancreatectomy and administered streptozotocin (STZ) to decrease and destroy insulin-producing beta cells. This led to the marmosets having higher sustained blood glucose levels (above 200 mg/dL) and the inability to manage their condition through natural insulin production. Instead, they were injected with exogenous human insulin which brought their glucose levels back into the target range. Researchers found that they had a high sensitivity to human insulin making them a valuable NHP model.
Multiple glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted to determine how the diabetic marmosets responded compared to normal marmosets and whether they would be suitable candidates for future testing regarding islet transplantation. Continuous glucose monitors (CGM) were used to compare normal marmosets with diabetic marmosets as well, further showing that diabetic marmosets had consistently higher blood glucose levels, especially following meals, much like humans with type 1 diabetes.
While additional research is necessary, researchers believe that marmoset models could play an integral role in type 1 diabetes research and the advancement of preclinical testing. They were able to effectively induce diabetes in the marmosets and control it using human insulin, so the next step would be to move to cell transplantation trials. Eventually these transplant models may translate to human clinical trials and enhance diabetes treatment options.
It is these types of studies and use of animal models that help to advance scientistsâ€™ understanding and treatment of type 1 diabetes and allow them to work toward a cure. Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is interested to see how marmoset models will influence the future of diabetes care.
DRC is committed to supporting early career scientists in pursuing novel, peer-reviewed research regarding type 1 diabetes. Researchers can receive up to $75K in funding for their projects allowing them to move forward with their work. Learn more about current projects and how to help by visiting http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.