DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Managing T1D by Looping

Effectively Managing Type 1 Diabetes with Loop Technology

The diabetes community is vital. Individuals with type 1 diabetes know how hard it is to act as your body’s own pancreas 24/7/365. Advances in technology such as continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and insulin pumps have made the process a little easier, but there are still challenges. Managing T1D still requires a lot of decisions and manual work.

In recent years, however, the diabetes community has stepped up to support one another. Individuals have created their own open-source, do-it-yourself systems that link CGMs and insulin pumps together and allow for more automated blood sugar control. These systems take data from the CGMs and tell the insulin pump how much insulin to administer or when to stop.

recent observational study found that these community-developed tools may be safe and effective in helping adults and children better manage their T1D and improve glucose control. Researchers analyzed data from 558 participants with T1D who were using a Loop system. Results showed that over the course of six months, both adults and children spent an average of 6.6% more time in their target range and spent 0.33% less time in severe hypoglycemia.

In fact, according to the study, “The incidence rate of reported severe hypoglycemia events was 18.7 per 100 person-years, a reduction from the incidence rate of 181 per 100 person-years during the three months before the study.”

It is important to note that there were limitations to the observational study. Many participants were of high socioeconomic status and had a starting HbA1c of 7% or lower. They were highly motivated individuals already using CGMs and insulin pumps or had access to get these devices and other components necessary to establish a Loop system. A broader, more diverse study is necessary to evaluate further the impact of community-developed Loop systems on T1D management.

Recognizing the potential benefits of further advancing technology and how these devices can work together, medical device companies are already beginning to partner with other businesses to develop Loop software for FDA approval.

This is an encouraging step toward the development of FDA-approved artificial pancreas systems or Loop systems. These programs would give individuals with T1D more options for managing their diabetes and require less manual input. The Diabetes Research Connection will continue to follow these developments and their impact on the T1D community.

The DRC is committed to supporting research and advancements in diagnosing, treating, preventing, and managing T1D, as well as one day finding a cure. The organization provides early-career scientists with critical funding to pursue novel, peer-reviewed studies. Learn more about current projects and how to help at https://diabetesresearchconnection.org

Please DONATE NOW so DRC can keep bringing you credible, peer-reviewed T1D news and research.

Thank you.

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Covid and Beta-Cell Destruction

COVID-19 May Trigger Pancreatic Beta-Cell Destruction

Pancreatic beta-cells play an important role in producing, distributing, and regulating insulin throughout the body. When these cells become damaged or are destroyed, it can lead to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Patients with T1D must monitor their blood glucose levels and insulin administration since their body is no longer able to do it on its own effectively.

Since the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus emerged more than a year ago, scientists have been researching it to learn as much as they can. Individuals with T1D were recognized as a high-risk group for developing severe COVID-19 due to their existing autoimmune disorder.

recent study found that SARS-CoV-2 does infect pancreatic beta cells, and it can interfere with insulin secretion, affecting blood glucose levels. In addition, the virus can trigger the signaling of beta-cell death, also known as apoptosis. NRP1 inhibition may be effective in protecting these cells.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is interested in seeing what further studies reveal potential links between COVID-19 and type 1 diabetes. This research may play an important role in future health initiatives to protect patients with T1D and preserve pancreatic beta cells. 

Funding diabetes research is essential as this disease affects millions of people around the world. The DRC provides critical funding to early-career scientists focused on T1D research. To learn more about current projects and how to help, visit https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

Please DONATE NOW so DRC can keep bringing you credible, peer-reviewed T1D news and research.

Thank you.

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Breakthrough Therapy for T1Ds

Breakthrough Therapy Status Granted for Type 1 Diabetes Adjunctive Therapy

Effectively managing blood glucose levels can be challenging for individuals with type 1 diabetes. Everyone’s body responds differently to various therapeutic treatments; what works well for one person may not be as effective for the next. Researchers are constantly searching for new options to tailor treatment and maintain better control over blood glucose.

Glucokinase activators have been a focus of recent research, as they are commonly used in some treatments for type 2 diabetes. The glucokinase gene acts as a sensor to alert the pancreas to produce more insulin when blood glucose levels rise. However, now they have been found to be potentially effective as an adjunctive therapy to insulin for individuals with type 1 diabetes.

TTP399, an “investigational oral, hepatoselective glucokinase activator,” developed by vTv Therapeutics, Inc. received a Breakthrough Therapy designation by the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA). The molecule targets hepatic glucokinase rather than pancreatic beta cells. The results of a 12-week phase 2 trial showed that participants who were treated with TTP399 showed improved HbA1c levels, fewer incidences of severe hypoglycemia, and fewer reports of abnormal serum and urine ketones than the control group who received a placebo.

Steve Holcombe, vTv CEO, notes, “Patient and prescriber fear of hypoglycemia often precludes tight glycemic control, and this FDA designation highlights the potential of TTP399 to address this serious unmet medical need.” Additional clinical trials will be conducted later in 2021.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how this breakthrough therapy will impact type 1 diabetes treatment moving forward and what future clinical trials will show. Though not associated with this study, the DRC is committed to supporting T1D research by providing critical funding to early-career scientists. Funding is essential to continue advancing treatment options and one day finding a cure for type 1 diabetes. To learn more, visit https://diabetesresearchconnection.org

Please DONATE NOW so DRC can keep bringing you credible, peer-reviewed T1D news and research.

Thank you.

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DRC's Newest Leaders

Meet DRC’s Newest Leaders – A Virtual Hangout

Meet DRC’s Newest Leaders – A Virtual Hangout


The DRC and its New Leaders

Hello there, ever heard of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)? A nation brimming with potential, natural resources, and a rich tapestry of cultures. Now, this vibrant country introduces a new breed of leaders ready to steer the ship towards progressive horizons. Stick around, we’re about to meet them in a unique, 21st-century style!

Virtual Hangouts: The New Norm

Forget the stale boardrooms or packed auditoriums. This year, we’re going digital. With technology at our fingertips, we’re bringing these leaders straight to your living room. Ready to jump in?

The New Leaders of DRC

A Glimpse at the New Leadership

The DRC’s newest leaders are a dynamic group of individuals, each contributing their unique perspectives to shape the country’s future. They come from diverse backgrounds, echoing the rich variety of the DRC itself. But what binds them together?

Vision and Goals of the New Leaders

Economic Policy

Our leaders’ mission? To drive economic growth while ensuring the wealth is evenly distributed. Sounds like a tough balancing act, right? But with innovative strategies and determination, it’s more than possible.

Social Policy

They are also focusing on bridging the social gaps. Ensuring equal opportunities, fostering a sense of unity, and celebrating diversity are at the forefront of their agenda.


One word – accessibility. The new leaders are working towards a healthcare system that is inclusive, comprehensive, and affordable.


Education, they believe, is the backbone of development. Hence, they are committed to enhancing the quality of education and making it accessible to every child in DRC.

The Concept of Virtual Hangouts

The Rise of Virtual Interactions

The world is no stranger to the concept of virtual interactions. In fact, it has become our go-to means of communication. But who would have thought it could bring us face to face with the leaders of a nation?

Advantages of Virtual Hangouts

The advantages? Plenty! It provides a global platform, reaching audiences far and wide. It also promotes engagement, allowing you to ask questions and interact directly with the leaders.

How the Virtual Hangout was Organized

Platforms Used

The event was hosted on a secure and user-friendly platform, ensuring a seamless experience for all attendees.

Agenda of the Hangout

The hangout wasn’t all serious talks. It was a blend of formal discussions, interactive Q&A sessions, and a glimpse into the personal lives of the leaders.

Behind the Scenes

Pulling off an event of this scale wasn’t easy. But with a dedicated team and a clear vision, it was a resounding success!

The Impact and Reception of the Virtual Hangout

Public Opinion

The public’s response? Overwhelmingly positive. It provided a sense of connection and transparency that was appreciated by all.

Global Perception

The event also bolstered DRC’s global image, showcasing the country’s dedication to progress and openness to change.


The virtual hangout with DRC’s newest leaders was more than just a meet-and-greet. It was a beacon of hope, an insight into the country’s future, and a testament to the possibilities of technology. The journey ahead for DRC is promising, and with these new leaders at the helm, we are sure to see some positive changes.


  1. Who are the new leaders of the DRC?The new leaders are a diverse group of individuals with a shared vision of driving economic growth and social equality.
  2. What was the purpose of the virtual hangout?The virtual hangout served to introduce the new leaders, share their vision and goals, and interact directly with the public.
  3. Which platforms were used for the virtual hangout?The event was hosted on a secure, user-friendly platform.
  4. What were the main topics discussed during the virtual hangout?The leaders shared their plans for economic and social policies, healthcare, and education.
  5. What was the public reaction to the virtual hangout?The response was overwhelmingly positive, with attendees appreciating the transparency and opportunity to engage directly with the leaders.

On Tuesday, May 25th, DRC held a virtual gathering with Diabetes Research Connection’s newest leaders Karen Hooper (Executive Director), C.C. King, Ph.D. (President/Chair), and Vincenzo Cirulli, M.D., Ph.D. (Scientific Director). During this 60-minute event, Karen, C.C., and Vincenzo talked about how they got involved in the organization and their personal experience in non-profit work, as well as T1D research. This was followed by a Q + A.

Click HERE to view the recording of the virtual gathering.

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Discussing Diabetes with DRC's T1Ds

Discussing Diabetes with DRC’s T1Ds: Blog Post 5 of Series 2

When I tell peers I have type 1 diabetes, they usually ask me if it’s curable. No, not yet, I reply. The next typical comment from my peers is “but at least it’s treatable, right?” I nod and tell them about my usual routine: insulin injections, blood glucose monitoring, et cetera–but I usually spare them my longer response. Yes, type 1 diabetes is “treatable,” and developments in technology and scientific research are making type 1 diabetes management easier. However, type 1 diabetes treatment is a learning process. Each day, each hour, my blood sugars respond differently to insulin. Some days, I only need to give a few units after a bowl of cereal. Other days, I have to give a large dosage for a small snack. Type 1 diabetes is all about carefully maintaining a balance: not giving too much insulin, and not too little; not eating too many carbs to correct a low, but eating enough to raise your levels; being diligent about your blood glucose levels, but not becoming obsessive. Regardless of how hard we try, however, it’s inevitable that our blood glucose levels will fluctuate. 

High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is defined as levels above 180 mg/dl. Diatribe’s resource page on type 1 diabetes describes symptoms of hyperglycemia as “frequent urination, increased thirst, and blurred vision.” In my experience, high blood sugar makes me feel like I ate a pound of salty chips. I have no appetite, I get fatigued, nauseous, and I cannot stop drinking water. The most common time for me (and most type 1 diabetics) to experience hyperglycemia is after eating a meal before our insulin dosage kicks in. Certain foods can cause blood glucose levels to rise quicker than others, but this differs from person-to-person. It’s important to pay attention to what you eat and take note of how it affects your levels. For example, I used to experience extremely high blood sugar levels directly after I drank my coffee each morning. I realized it was because of the milk I was drinking– I was not aware that regular 2% milk had 14 grams of sugar per cup. I also learned it was because caffeine tends to also raise blood sugar levels. I had to switch up my coffee routine so my blood glucose levels stayed stable: I switched to drinking oat milk, which only has 4 grams of sugar per cup, and I give a few units of insulin fifteen minutes before I drink my coffee. 

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is defined as levels below 70 mg/dl. Diatribe notes that “perspiration,” “hunger,” and “irritability” are symptoms of hypoglycemia. In comparison to hyperglycemia, non-diabetics can experience hypoglycemia if their energy expenditure exceeds their food consumption. However, type 1 diabetics can experience more severe hypoglycemia, since they are responsible for dosing their own insulin. When I try to describe severe hypoglycemia to a non-diabetic, the first word that pops into mind is “hunger.” I have experienced hypoglycemic episodes where I could probably eat two pints of ice cream or an entire pizza. Hypoglycemia can be extremely dangerous if you do not immediately consume fast-acting carbohydrates. That’s why it’s important to know when you are going low and make sure to treat it as soon as possible. The scariest time to have low blood sugar is while sleeping, since you’re not consciously aware of the direction your levels are heading. As all type 1 diabetics know, sleep does not mean having a break from our disease. Before I had a Continuous Glucose Monitor, I would wake up in the middle of the night dizzy, sweaty, and confused, and then slowly realize I was experiencing low blood sugar. Now, I can rely on my CGM to vibrate and warn me that my levels are beginning to drop. 

As Diatribe mentions, letting high or low blood sugar levels go untreated can have severe consequences. It’s important to pay attention to how you’re feeling at all times. Type 1 diabetes has helped me stay in tune with my body: I notice any slight change in the way I’m feeling, mentally or physically. When my body needs something (whether it’s insulin, food, or even just rest), I can tell almost immediately. My body and I work closely together to manage our illness. 

So, yes, type 1 diabetes is treatable. But it’s not easy. I think it’s important for type 1 diabetics to remember that they will experience high and low blood sugar. Sometimes, levels are simply uncontrollable. We have lives and identities that go beyond our disease. We are human. We make mistakes. The way I have learned to cope is to get involved with organizations, like Diabetes Research Connection, that are researching diabetes treatment, prevention, and solutions. It helps me feel a sense of control and power over my disease, knowing that I am actively participating in the fight for a cure. And, as I have learned in the last few months of working with DRC, a future without type 1 diabetes is closer than ever.

This blog was written by Lauren Grove, DRC Intern, who has had T1D for 15 years and is responding to the article, Type 1 Diabetes.

Lauren Grove

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Discussing Diabetes with DRC's T1Ds

Discussing Diabetes with DRC’s T1Ds: Blog Post 4 of Series 2

When I started researching articles to reference when I wrote this blog, I realized a lack of anecdotal/experiential information regarding a T1D’s background with how their parents coped/managed this new and daunting disease. I see many helpful tips and tricks for mom and dad on handling high A1Cs and dealing with constant uncertainty, but let me take a stab at expressing the feelings and thoughts on the other side of the fence.

Let me begin by stating how much I absolutely adore my mom and dad. Where my mom is the emotional outlet and mental strength I need when times get tough, my dad takes the clinical and practical approach by seeing the issue and addressing it immediately. My parents divorced before I got T1D, but it honestly brought them together. The day I was diagnosed, both of my parents were clutching my hands and listening intently as my PA stated my blood sugar was above 500 and we would need to go to the hospital the following day. While my mom held me close and told me that everything would be ok, my dad started frantically researching. Throughout the next month and a half, our seemingly “normal” family transitioned into what would become OUR norm. My dad had never given a shot to another person, yet he spent hours injecting water into oranges and learning about carb counting and insulin dosages. My mom went a different route and began looking for support groups for the whole family. As the parents of a T1D child, it is important to play to your strengths and not what is “expected” of you.

Now, not everything was honky-dory in the Gebauer household when it comes to my T1D. My dad was under the assumption that my blood sugar needed to be between 100-120 at all times. If you have had T1D past the honeymoon phase, you know that this is not realistic. I hate to break it to some T1D parents out there, but we will have bad days – it comes with the territory. Instead of scolding the child on their blood sugar, my suggestion would be to comment on how it was caught in time to be addressed and then move forward. Not all A1Cs are below 7. Again, don’t criticize the child; we already get the excruciatingly frightening talk of all the future complications we will end up having from our Endocrinologist and their army of tongue-lashing nurses. Instead, the parent should work with the child on a feasible management plan together. Celebrate the wins and learn from the losses.

I have had the privilege of knowing many T1Ds in my life, and I can honestly say that nothing was/is more important to me than having support. This came in the form of T1D camps and non-profits (like DRC) that helped me grow with my disease and offered my parents guidance from other experienced/non-experienced parents that alleviated a lot of unnecessary stress. When I was first diagnosed, I went to a camp up in Angelus Oaks called Camp Conrad Chinnock. While I was learning how to give myself shots, my parents worked through their fears and concerns with other parents, exchanging tips on what helps them and what doesn’t. After we went home, my mom and dad stopped fighting me when I would beg to have a treat like ice cream, Halloween candy, or heaven-forbid, sugar-filled soda. Instead, we made compromises together. Rather than having a large piece of cake with ice cream, I could have a smaller portion of cake minus the ice cream. If I drank diet sodas Monday through Friday, I could have the sugar-filled soda on Saturday. At one point, I even started to hate the taste of sugar-filled sodas and currently religiously enjoy my diet Sunkist and Root Beer.

So, what can a parent of a T1D child take away from what I have written? 1. T1D is anything but perfect and often isn’t. What works for both the parent and child is communicating and developing a management system and making mistakes but positively addressing them together. That way, when the child is my age, they don’t have to call their mom/dad in the middle of the night and ask them how many units they need to take when their blood sugar is 350 – they know and are prepared. 2. Find a support system that meets the family’s needs. We heard about my parents and my experience, but I have a little brother and older sister. Going to this camp and finding local non-profits helped them understand my struggle and gave them the space to find others in their predicament. We are NOT alone, and there are so many places and resources out there to help make this difficult disease easier.


This blog was written by Hannah Gebauer, DRC’s Development Assistant, who has had T1D for 18 years and is writing on a subject close to her heart. 

Hannah Gebauer

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Coronavirus Update

Coronavirus and Diabetes Resources: Community Partner with Beyond Type 1 UPDATE


Here’s a post about Coronavirus and T1D Resources, How have you been navigating these trying times? The pandemic has indeed thrown everyone a curveball. Among all this chaos, managing chronic conditions such as diabetes becomes even more challenging. This article provides resources and advice for those living with diabetes during the pandemic, focusing on the community efforts by Beyond Type 1.

Coronavirus: A Quick Overview

Ever heard of a sneeze that shook the world? Well, COVID-19 did precisely that.

Impact on Health

Coronavirus is a respiratory illness with effects ranging from mild flu-like symptoms to severe respiratory distress. COVID-19’s impact can be particularly harsh for those with underlying health conditions.

Key Statistics

As of mid-2023, the virus has infected over 300 million people and has claimed the lives of over 5 million worldwide.

Diabetes: An Unforgiving Chronic Illness

Ever had to deal with an unruly house guest who overstays their welcome? That’s what it’s like to live with diabetes.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar. It comes in two main forms: Type 1, where the body can’t produce insulin, and Type 2, where the body doesn’t use insulin effectively.

The Prevalence of Diabetes

Nearly 500 million people worldwide live with diabetes. It’s an uninvited guest that requires constant attention.

The Intersection of Coronavirus and Diabetes

Imagine battling two supervillains at the same time! That’s what it’s like for people dealing with diabetes amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

How Coronavirus Affects People with Diabetes

People with diabetes are more susceptible to severe complications from COVID-19. It becomes crucial for them to manage their blood glucose levels effectively and seek timely medical intervention.

Managing Diabetes during COVID-19

During the pandemic, maintaining good glycemic control and following COVID-19 safety guidelines can make all the difference.

Beyond Type 1: A Compassionate Community

Have you ever felt the power of community support during difficult times? Beyond Type 1 provides just that for people living with diabetes.

Who are Beyond Type 1?

Beyond Type 1 is a nonprofit organization that serves as a resource and community for those affected by diabetes.

How Beyond Type 1 is Helping

Beyond Type 1 provides resources, advice, and community support to people with diabetes. It acts as a beacon of light in the tumultuous sea of managing a chronic condition during a pandemic. Coronavirus and T1D Resources

The Partnership and Its Impact

Through partnerships with organizations and communities, Beyond Type 1 has extended its support to millions of people across the globe. It’s like the superhero team-up of diabetes care!


In the end, it’s crucial to remember that, while diabetes and COVID-19 are formidable opponents, they are not undefeatable. With awareness, discipline, support from organizations like Beyond Type 1, and community strength, we can sail through this storm together.


  1. What is Beyond Type 1? Beyond Type 1 is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing resources, community support, and information to people living with diabetes. Coronavirus and T1D Resources
  2. How can I protect myself from COVID-19 if I have diabetes? Alongside standard COVID-19 precautions, maintaining good glycemic control and regular communication with healthcare providers are key.
  3. What are the complications of COVID-19 in people with diabetes? Individuals with diabetes may face more severe symptoms of COVID-19 and are at higher risk for complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis.
  4. Where can I find more resources on managing diabetes during the pandemic? Beyond Type 1 provides a wealth of resources for managing diabetes amidst the pandemic. You can also consult with healthcare providers for personalized advice.
  5. Why is the partnership between Beyond Type 1 and other organizations important? These partnerships amplify the support and resources available to individuals with diabetes, enhancing their ability to manage the disease during challenging times like the COVID-19 pandemic.

A few months ago, Diabetes Research Connection announced its partnership with Beyond Type 1, a nonprofit organization that unites the global T1D community and provides solutions to improve those lives. This partnership includes sharing resources for handling a number of problems anyone, especially T1Ds, may face during this pandemic. Click HERE to see their most updated information on topics such as all the information a T1D might need to know about the vaccine (click HERE to view that topic specifically) and ways you can help other countries like India, a country that has the 2nd highest rate of T1Ds and T2Ds in the world,  and who are currently experiencing the sharpest increase and largest amount of COVID-19 cases seen so far during this pandemic. Diabetes Research Connection is honored to help spread the word for such a fantastic resource as a community partner.

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DRC Researcher Interview Beyond Type 1 Interview with Peter Thompson Ph.D.

An Interview with DRC’s Fully-Funded Researcher, Peter Thompson, and Beyond Type 1

A couple of weeks ago, one of DRC’s previous researchers, Peter Thompson, Ph.D., spoke with Beyond Type 1, another non-profit organization, about how he became a T1D researcher, the work he did with DRC, and where he is going in his career. Peter worked with DRC in 2017-2018 on a project titled, “Regrowth of Beta Cells with Small Molecule Therapy,” that you can view by clicking HERE.

In this talk with Beyond Type 1, Peter touches on the reasons for becoming a T1D researcher, which included wanting to find a way to handle this disease that isn’t limited to just insulin. He also mentions having friends and family with the disease and how he wanted to help as he has seen the burden T1D has on those affected by it.

Peter continues by talking about how he found DRC and how he was excited to find this organization as many other T1D research non-profits don’t fund early-career scientists like himself, “For a lot of people who are just starting out, if you’re training and you’re looking to go into an academic career, if you’re working with ideas that are very new, and different, and pushing the boundaries, there’s not a lot of places you can go with those ideas to get funding.”

Now, Peter has started his own lab at the University of Manitoba and part of the Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. He recently received his first external grant funding from the Manitoba Medical Services Foundation (MMSF) and plans to do much more work in the world of T1D research!

Click HERE to view the full article and video of Peter’s interview with Beyond Type 1!

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See our approved research projects and campaigns.

Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha