DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Diabetes Jigsaw Puzzle

Exploring the Potential Impact of Genetics and Infection on T1D Risk

There is no clear, concise explanation for why some people develop type 1 diabetes (T1D) and others do not, or what puts some people at greater risk for the disease. The origins and triggering factors for T1D are something that scientists have been studying for decades. A recent study looks at the possible relationship between genetic risk variants and viral infections and their impact on T1D development.

In some individuals, enteroviruses may trigger or accelerate disease development. However, in others, these same viruses may stimulate a variety of protective factors. Both genetic and environmental factors come into play, and researchers are exploring how to use these findings to improve treatment and prevention of T1D.

Scientists know that the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells plays a role in disease development. Some individuals present with autoantibodies long before T1D develops, and there are still beta cells present in many people even after living with the disease for many years. Yet they are still unsure about exactly what triggers beta cell destruction.

Studies have shown that around 50 percent of T1D risk is heritable. But just because a person carries this risk, does not necessarily mean they will develop the disease. There are around 60 different loci for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) that are associated with T1D and may contribute to risk.

Researchers believe that enteroviruses may also play a role. Many links have been found between enterovirus infections and the presence of various autoantibodies.  These infections may trigger beta cell autoimmunity in individuals who already have factors that put them at greater risk of developing T1D. By more effectively identifying individuals who have multiple risk factors, scientists may be able to create targeted antiviral treatments or preventive virus vaccines.

There is still a great deal of research to be done regarding the development of and triggers for T1D. Genetics, environment, and infection may all play a role, but their impact differs from person to person. There is also limited insight into factors such as ethnicity and gender, especially when looking at enteroviral etiology.

Though not involved with this study, the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) contributes to current bodies of research through providing critical funding for early career scientists pursuing projects related to the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and eventual cure for T1D. Scientists are learning more about the disease every day. Support these efforts by visiting http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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diabetic Retinopathy

Asthma Medication May Help Treat Diabetic Retinopathy

A common complication associated with diabetes (T1D) is diabetic retinopathy. Poor blood sugar control can increase risk of this disease because it impacts the blood flow to the eye by blocking and damaging tiny blood vessels. It can eventually lead to blindness. Symptoms can be very mild and barely noticeable at first, so this is often a condition that is treated in later stages when the effects become more severe.

However, a recent study found that the administration of an FDA-approved asthma medication – montelukast, also known as Singulair – may help reduce damage to blood vessels and nerves in and around the eye. This indication has only been tested in mouse models so far, but because it is already an FDA-approved medication for use in children and adolescents, this may decrease the time it takes to shift into human clinical trials.

Researchers found that the medication suppresses inflammation enough to alter the signaling of inflammatory molecules and prevent pathology, but not enough to compromise the body’s innate immunity. If found effective in human trials, it could be used as a prevention method as well as to treat diabetic retinopathy in its early stages. This could be beneficial to children who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and even those who have been managing the disease for several years and are at risk for eye disease.

Though not involved with this study, the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is interested to see how it progresses and what findings show when used in human subjects. It is encouraging to see a potential new option for reducing risk of diabetic retinopathy and improving quality of life for individuals living with type 1 diabetes.

DRC supports early career scientists in pursuing novel, peer-reviewed research studies aimed at prevention, treatment, and an eventual cure for type 1 diabetes. To learn more about current projects and how to help, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Diabetes Mealtime

Structured Mealtime Routines May Help Manage HbA1c Levels in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes

Managing type 1 diabetes (T1D) can be challenging for anyone, but it can be especially difficult for parents of young children with the disease. They must carefully monitor their child’s diet and activity while regularly checking blood glucose levels. A recent study has found that those children who receive preprandial insulin and eat on a regular schedule tend to have improved HbA1c levels.

Researchers analyzed data from 22 Australian children age seven or younger. Their parents tracked the exact amounts and types of food and beverages offered and consumed by their children over a three-day period. They also answered 16 questions regarding mealtime routines and their child’s eating patterns, such as whether they grazed throughout the day or had set snack times and meal times. In addition, it asked about use of preprandial insulin.

The study found that 95% of children used preprandial insulin, and all children ate at least three meals per day. For 81% of children, their parent determined when they were offered food, but the other 19% followed child-led eating patterns. While there was no direct correlation between carbohydrate, protein, or fat intake on HbA1c, researchers did note that HbA1c levels were lower in those children who ate at regular mealtimes as opposed to grazing throughout the day.

Another interesting note was that the children with T1D ate similar diets as those children without the disease. Furthermore, none of the children in the study met the daily recommended vegetable intake, and only 28% ate recommended amounts of lean meats and protein. Additional research is necessary to evaluate the impact of diet quality on diabetes management.

It is these types of studies that provide further insight into improving management of type 1 diabetes. The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) provides early career scientists with up to $75K in funding to support peer-reviewed, novel research studies focused on prevention, treatment, and management of type 1 diabetes as well as working toward a cure. To learn more and donate to current projects, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Nasal Glucagon

Nasal Glucagon Approved to Treat Severe Hypoglycemia

If you or someone you love is living with type 1 diabetes, you know that, in addition to blood sugar becoming too high, having it drop too low is a serious concern as well. When blood sugar falls below 70mg/dL, individuals often start feeling the effects such as shakiness, sweating, chills, lightheadedness, weakness, blurry vision, or tiredness.

If blood sugar continues to drop, it can lead to severe hypoglycemia where the person may be unable to treat their low blood sugar themselves due to confusion, seizures, or loss of consciousness. When this occurs, the individual with T1D often relies on medical personnel or a trained bystander to administer glucagon. Traditionally, glucagon is injected into the arm, thigh, or buttock. However, the medication must first be reconstituted, which involves injecting the contents of the syringe into a vial, mixing it together, then drawing it back into the syringe to inject into the person. In an emergency situation, this can be a lot of steps to follow and there is plenty of room for error.

In an effort to simplify the process, Eli Lilly and Company has manufactured the first ever FDA-approved nasal glucagon, Baqsimi. The device is pre-loaded with 3 mg of glucagon and ready to use for patients age 4 and older. The medication stimulates the liver to release glucose and was found to effectively reverse insulin-induced hypoglycemia based on three studies encompassing more than 200 participants. There were no major safety concerns, and the potential adverse reactions were similar to those of injectable glucagon with the addition of watery eyes and nasal congestion. However, nasal glucagon is not recommended for individuals with pheochromocytoma or insulinoma.

Nasal glucagon provides yet another option for individuals with T1D to quickly – and more easily – treat episodes of severe hypoglycemia. It is simple to use because there is no reconstitution, multi-step processes, or injections necessary. The drug is expected to hit the U.S. market around the beginning of September 2019.

We are excited to see this new product come to market and is interested to see how it impacts diabetes care and management for individuals who experience severe hypoglycemia.

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See our approved research projects and campaigns.

Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha