If you or someone you love is living with type 1 diabetes, you know that, in addition to blood sugar becoming too high, having it drop too low is a serious concern as well. When blood sugar falls below 70mg/dL, individuals often start feeling the effects such as shakiness, sweating, chills, lightheadedness, weakness, blurry vision, or tiredness.
If blood sugar continues to drop, it can lead to severe hypoglycemia where the person may be unable to treat their low blood sugar themselves due to confusion, seizures, or loss of consciousness. When this occurs, the individual with T1D often relies on medical personnel or a trained bystander to administer glucagon. Traditionally, glucagon is injected into the arm, thigh, or buttock. However, the medication must first be reconstituted, which involves injecting the contents of the syringe into a vial, mixing it together, then drawing it back into the syringe to inject into the person. In an emergency situation, this can be a lot of steps to follow and there is plenty of room for error.
In an effort to simplify the process, Eli Lilly and Company has manufactured the first ever FDA-approved nasal glucagon, Baqsimi. The device is pre-loaded with 3 mg of glucagon and ready to use for patients age 4 and older. The medication stimulates the liver to release glucose and was found to effectively reverse insulin-induced hypoglycemia based on three studies encompassing more than 200 participants. There were no major safety concerns, and the potential adverse reactions were similar to those of injectable glucagon with the addition of watery eyes and nasal congestion. However, nasal glucagon is not recommended for individuals with pheochromocytoma or insulinoma.
Nasal glucagon provides yet another option for individuals with T1D to quickly – and more easily – treat episodes of severe hypoglycemia. It is simple to use because there is no reconstitution, multi-step processes, or injections necessary. The drug is expected to hit the U.S. market around the beginning of September 2019.
We are excited to see this new product come to market and is interested to see how it impacts diabetes care and management for individuals who experience severe hypoglycemia.