Targeting the Effects of Specific Drugs on Pancreatic Islets

The production of insulin and glucagon used to regulate blood sugar levels come from pancreatic islet cells. In individuals with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these cells leaving the body unable to naturally regulate blood sugar. That means that individuals must continuously monitor and manage these levels themselves.

A recent study examined the impact that specific drugs have on pancreatic islet cells and their function. Researchers were able to fine-tune single-cell transcriptomics to remove contamination from RNA molecules that could interfere with results and negatively affect reliability of the data.

Once they had created decontaminated transcriptomes, they tested three different drugs that relate to blood glucose management. They found that one drug, FOXO1, “induces dedifferentiation of both alpha and beta cells,” while the drug artemether “had been found to diminish the function of alpha cells and could induce insulin production in both in vivo and in vitro studies.” They compared these drugs in both human and mouse samples to determine if there were any differences in how the cells responded. One notable difference was that artemether did not have a significant impact on insulin expression in human cells, but in mouse cells, there was reduced insulin expression and overall beta cell identity.

Single-cell analysis of various drugs could help guide future therapeutic treatments for type 1 diabetes as researchers better understand their impact. Targeted therapies have become a greater focus of research as scientists continue to explore T1D at a cellular level.

Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is interested to see how single-cell sequencing and the ability to decontaminate RNA sequences could affect diabetes research. The organization supports a wide array of T1D-focused studies by providing critical funding to allow early-career scientists to advance their research. To learn more and support these efforts, visit https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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