There are many complications that can occur with type 1 diabetes, but one of the most serious is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). When the body does not produce (or have) enough insulin to help convert sugar to energy, it begins breaking down fat and using that as fuel instead. However, this releases acid known as ketones into the bloodstream, in turn leading to DKA when levels become too high.
A recent study found that DKA among newly diagnosed pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes is alarmingly high among patients around the world. During an 11-year study spanning from 2006 to 2016, researchers found that out of 59,000 children who had been diagnosed with T1D, 29.9% presented with DKA at diagnosis. The study examined data from children in Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden, Wales, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States.
Of these countries, prevalence rates in Luxembourg and Italy were found to be the highest at 43.8% and 41.2%, respectively, while Sweden and Denmark had the lowest rates at 19.5% and 20.8%, respectively. DKA at diabetes diagnosed increased over the 11-year study in the United States, Australia, and Germany. Overall, DKA tended to impact a higher proportion of females than males, except in Wales.
In order to help reduce risk of DKA at diagnosis, the researchers encourage improved screenings beginning with young children. For example, Bavaria, Germany tests for islet autoantibodies as part of a public health screening for children between the ages of 2 and 5. Studies showed that their prevalence of DKA at diagnosis came in at less than 5%. Increased screenings and education may be beneficial in raising awareness and catching potential problems early on before DKA develops.
Though not involved with this study, the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is committed to improving understanding, prevention, and treatment of type 1 diabetes by providing critical funding for novel, peer-reviewed research studies by early-career scientists. Find out how to support these efforts and learn more about current projects by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.