DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Improving Vascularization in Pancreatic Islet Transplants

One of the approaches scientists have been exploring for the treatment of type 1 diabetes is pancreatic islet cell transplants. By introducing these cells into the body, they are often able to maintain better glycemic control and support insulin production. However, there are many challenges that come with this type of treatment. It is essential to protect transplanted islet cells from immune system attack while also promoting sustainability. Cells tend to lose function over time and poor vascularization is often a contributing factor.

In a recent study, scientists have found a way to improve vascularization and therefore function of transplanted human pancreatic islets in diabetic mice. In addition to encapsulating islet cells, they also included human umbilical cord perivascular mesenchymal stromal cells or HUCPVCs. The HUCPVCs had a positive effect on graft function and suppressed T cell responses. In both immunocompetent and immunodeficient diabetic mice, glycemic control was maintained for up to 16 weeks when cells were transplanted via a kidney capsule, and for up to six weeks or seven weeks respectively when administered via a hepatic portal route. Furthermore, with the addition of HUCPVCs to the transplanted islet mass, rejection was delayed and the graft showed some proregenerative properties.

These findings may improve the future of human islet allotransplantation as a viable option for long-term treatment of type 1 diabetes. Scientists are constantly exploring ways to reduce rejection and the need for prolonged immunosuppression while maintaining better glycemic control. This study opens doors for more advanced research on the use of HUCPVCs in islet transplantation as well as related therapies.

Diabetes Research Connection is committed to supporting research for type 1 diabetes by providing early-career scientists with essential funding to keep projects moving forward. Learn more about current studies and how to donate to these efforts by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Advances in Therapeutic Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes without Immune Suppression

One approach that researchers have been exploring to treat type 1 diabetes is cell therapy. By introducing new insulin-producing beta cells or other types of cells, scientists strive to support the body in once again producing its own insulin. A common challenge with this technique is that it often has limited results as the body once again attacks the cells, or they slowly lose function on their own. In addition, cell therapy typically requires immune suppression which can put individuals at risk for other complications.

However, in a recent study, researchers tested a new method of transplanting therapeutic cells by using a retrievable device with a silicone reservoir. The cells are further protected by a porous polymeric membrane that allows macrophages to enter the device without destroying the transplanted cells, or that prevents them from entering at all.

When tested in immunocompetent mice, the device supported normoglycemia for more than 75 days without the need for immunosuppression. The transplanted cells were able to effectively produce erythropoietin, which in turn improves oxygen supply to the body, and also generates insulin to manage blood sugar levels.

This is a notable step forward in improving cell therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. More research and testing are required to determine how this process translates into human models. Researchers have been trying to limit or eliminate the need for immune suppression while transplanting healthy pancreatic, islet, and stem cells into the body to control blood glucose levels.

Dan Anderson, Ph.D., a member of the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) Scientific Review Committee, is the senior author of the article published regarding these findings. DRC is excited to see where these advances may lead and what it could mean for the future of cell transplantation techniques and cell therapy for type 1 diabetes. The organization provides critical funding for a wide range of projects related to improving diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. Learn more about current studies and how to support these efforts by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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