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Could There Be More than One Form of Type 1 Diabetes?

Researchers know that there are significant differences between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but now they are digging a little deeper. When it comes to T1D, the disease may not affect everyone in the same way. According to a recent study, there may be more than one endotype, and a major differentiator could be age of diagnosis.

The study looked at a small sample of 19 children diagnosed with T1D within the past two years and compared age of diagnosis against amount of beta cell destruction and levels of proinsulin and C-peptides. They also compared these ratios in a group of 171 adults with T1D based on their age of diagnosis. Their results showed that children who were diagnosed before the age of 7 had much higher levels of proinsulin-insulin co-localization than those diagnosed after age 13. Individuals between ages 7 and 13 were divided and fell into one group or the other.

The researchers also compared results against CD20Hi and CD20Lo immune profile designations for each participant. Children age 7 or younger tended to be CD20Hi, while those age 13 or older were CD20Lo, and the children in between were aligned with their respective groups based on whether they were CD20Hi or CD20Lo.

These differences in proinsulin and C-peptide concentrations demonstrate a distinction in how individuals are impacted by T1D, leading to at least two separate endotypes. Understanding whether an individual has T1D endotype 1 (T1DE1) or T1D endotype 2 (T1DE2) could enable more targeted and effective treatment of the disease based on how each group responds. Individuals with T1DE1 are identified as having higher levels of beta cell loss, therefore may have more difficulty regulating blood glucose. Those with T1DE2 may retain more beta cells, and determining ways to activate and protect these cells could support improved natural insulin production.

Recognizing that T1D affects people differently is a step in the right direction toward more personalized medicine and targeted therapies. Therapeutic trials could be aimed at groups depending on age of diagnosis and specific endotype in the future as larger studies are conducted to determine the significance of these findings.

Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is committed to supporting advances in research around type 1 diabetes and provides early-career scientists with critical funding for their studies. Research is focused on preventing and curing type 1 diabetes, minimizing complications, and improving quality of life for those living with the disease. Learn more and support these efforts by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Artificial Pancreas App Supports Type 1 Diabetes Management

Maintaining good glycemic control is challenging when living with type 1 diabetes. Individuals must carefully monitor their blood glucose levels throughout the day, then administer the appropriate amount of insulin to try to stay within target range. This can be more difficult than it sounds. Furthermore, many people with type 1 diabetes struggle with their blood sugar dropping overnight while they are asleep.

Patients living in the UK may have access to a new artificial pancreas app that takes away some of the stress and burden of constant blood sugar management. The CamAPS FX app works in conjunction with the Dana RS insulin pump and the Dexcom G6 continuous glucose monitor. Using a complex algorithm, the app tracks blood glucose levels, then automatically adjusts insulin administration accordingly. This reduces the demand for regular finger sticks to check blood sugar, and patients do not need to calculate how much insulin they require on their own.

The app has been approved in the UK for individuals age one and older, including pregnant women, who have type 1 diabetes. It was developed based on 13 years of clinical research conducted by Professor Roman Hovorka from the University of Cambridge and Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and his team at the Wellcome-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science. In addition, data from the app can be shared with patients’ healthcare teams allowing them to provide more personalized diabetes care.

Technology has made some significant advancements in type 1 diabetes care, and this is one more example of how it can impact management of the disease and improve health outcomes. Artificial pancreas technology is an area that researchers have been focused on improving over the years in order to give patients more options and reduce the burden of managing the disease.

Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see more results from use of the app and what it could mean for future diabetes management, not just in the UK but around the world. Currently the app is only available to patients at select diabetes clinics in the UK. Though not involved with this project, the DRC is committed to advancing diabetes research to help prevent and cure type 1 diabetes, minimize complications, and improve quality of life for those living with the disease. Early-career scientists can receive up to $50K in funding to support novel, peer-reviewed research projects. To learn more about current studies and contribute to these efforts, visit https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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