DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Histology of human pancreatic tissue

Oxygen Supply May be Key in Supporting Islet Transplantation

One of the strategies scientists have focused on in the treatment of type 1 diabetes is transplanting healthy islet cells into the body to naturally produce insulin and manage blood glucose levels. These cells may be lab-generated or come from a donor. However, a major challenge has been conducting these transplants without reliance on immunosuppressants which can compromise overall patient health and complicate treatment.

In order to overcome this obstacle, researchers have created encapsulation devices to protect transplanted islet cells from attack by the body without using immunosuppressants. But with these devices, the lifespan of cells has been limited, in part due to poor oxygen supply. The devices often limit access to oxygen or restrict diffusion.

A new study has found that surrounding islet cells in an oxygen-permeable membrane and equipping the encapsulation device with an oxygen chamber can provide the necessary oxygen supply to keep cells functional and viable. Scientists experimented with varying levels of islet cell surface density and oxygen partial pressure (pO2).  The chamber allowed oxygen to be diffused throughout the highly concentrated alginate slab of islet cells.

The results showed that an average of 88% of islet cells maintained their viability and supported normoglycemic levels when tested in diabetic rats. Due to the continuous diffusion of oxygen, the chamber needs to be refilled daily through a subcutaneous port. Of the 137 rats in the trial, 66 remained normoglycemic for at least eight weeks. Some remained normoglycemic for up to 238 days, at which point the device was electively removed. Upon explanation, rats experienced hyperglycemia. When given intravenous glucose tolerance tests, results from rats with the implanted device were not significantly different than those of non-diabetic rats.

Researchers are currently exploring opportunities to decrease the size of the device while achieving greater islet density and continued viability. This study demonstrates how technology is advancing to create more options for treating and potentially curing type 1 diabetes with fewer complications and undesirable side effects.

Though not involved with this particular study, the Diabetes Research Connection is committed to supporting novel research for type 1 diabetes in an effort to prevent and cure the disease as well as reduce complications and improve quality of life for those living with type 1 diabetes. Click to learn more about current projects and provide support.

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Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha