DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Gut Flora

New Biomarker May Help with T1D Detection, Prevention, and Treatment

As scientists continue studying type 1 diabetes (T1D), they develop a deeper understanding of changes that occur in the body. It has been known for a while that the body attacks insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas leaving the body unable to regulate blood sugar. Researchers have recently discovered that MAIT cells within the body – cells that are activated by bacteria and associated with mucosae – may also play a role. They are part of the body’s innate immune system and may serve as a biomarker for early detection of T1D.

The study, which was conducted by AP-HP Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital in Paris and the Cochin Institute, examined blood sample from patients with and without T1D, as well as animal models. The results showed that MAIT cell levels were lower in the blood of children diagnosed with T1D than those who were not. This could be because the MAIT cells had migrated to the pancreas in children with T1D; they are believed to play a role in the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. But one interesting point to note was that before T1D had even developed in the animal models, the MAIT cells were already altered. This could serve as an early form of detection and prevention of the disease.

The mutation in MAIT cells may also contribute to gut mucosa being more susceptible to bacteria. This may lead to an increased autoimmune response. When MAIT cells are functioning normally, they help maintain homeostasis in the gut mucosa.

Scientists may be able to use this information to enhance early detection of T1D, develop strategies for prevention, or improve targeted treatment options. More research is needed to explore the link between MAIT cells and gut microbiota, but this is a starting point.

The Diabetes Research Connection actively supports novel research regarding preventing, treating, and potentially curing T1D. The organization raises funds that are provided to early career scientists for innovative research projects. To learn more and support their efforts, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha