DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Genetic Testing May Improve Prediction of Type 1 Diabetes Risk

The cause of type 1 diabetes is complex. There is not a single gene responsible for the disease, and both genetics and environment play a role. Plus, there is currently no way of preventing the disease from occurring. However, scientists believe that they can better predict which children and teenagers are at higher risk so their health can be monitored more closely and treatment started before they develop potentially life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis.

A recent study found that a simple genetic test that compares an individual’s gene profile to 82 genetic sites that are known to be associated with type 1 diabetes can identify those who are most at risk. The test only costs $7 and uses a saliva sample, so no blood draws or painful testing are required. If an individual is flagged as high risk, they can then have autoantibody screening conducted to look for the presence of four islet autoantibody biomarkers of the disease. The presence of two or more autoantibodies further identifies an individual at increased risk. Autoantibody tests are slightly more expensive at $75 each.

While family history does increase risk of type 1 diabetes, it is not a guaranteed indicator, and more than 90% of people who develop the disease do not have a family history. This genetic test could help to differentiate between those at high risk and those at low risk so there are fewer unnecessary tests that occur, and individuals who could benefit from closer monitoring can be more accurately identified.

According to the study, “The general population risk of type 1 diabetes is about 4 out of 1000, and those with a positive genetic test now have a risk of about 4 out of 100.” Testing may allow doctors to provide more targeted care and treatment for the disease and support individuals in better managing their health. As research continues to advance, scientists learn more about the risk factors, biomarkers, genetic sites, and environmental factors that all contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. In turn, this can enhance prediction, prevention, and treatment of the disease.

Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) supports early-career scientists in growing the body of knowledge that exists regarding type 1 diabetes by providing critical funding for research projects. Studies are focused on preventing and curing the disease as well as minimizing complications and improving quality of life. Learn more about current projects and how to support these efforts by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Removing Senescent Beta Cells May Help Prevent Type 1 Diabetes

Through data gathered in a DRC-sponsored research project, Peter Thompson, Ph.D., was able to secure additional funding that generated the results in this paper. Researchers explored the effects of senescent beta cells – or aging cells that no longer divide – on the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D).

In individuals with T1D, the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells that are necessary for regulating blood glucose levels. However, researchers have found that senescent beta cells increase B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, which in turn regulate cell death or apoptosis. By using a Bcl-2 inhibitor, researchers were able to eliminate senescent beta cells from the body which helps to stop the immune system’s destruction of insulin-producing beta cells and prevents the development of T1D.

This could be a major step forward in using the elimination of senescent beta cells as a therapeutic approach to treating or preventing T1D. More research is necessary to further explore the potential of this approach, but this study sheds new light on how the process impacts T1D and provides a greater understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is proud to have played a role in providing the initial funding to enable Dr. Thompson and his team to collect necessary data to move forward and receive additional funding for the study. The DRC empowers early career scientists to pursue novel research studies on T1D through the support of individual, corporate, and foundation donations.

 

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