Diabetes Research News

Get the most recent diabetes research news, delivered straight to your inbox

Could Insulin Management be Controlled with an App?

Determining the appropriate amount of insulin to administer in response to drops in blood sugar can be challenging, but it is something that individuals with type 1 diabetes must do daily in order to manage their health. If left untreated, low blood sugar (or hypoglycemia) can be potentially fatal.

A team of researchers and physicians at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) are looking to improve diabetes management through a new app called DailyDose. While there are similar types of apps that exist, what sets DailyDose apart is that has demonstrated statistically relevant outcomes through multiple clinical studies. The AI algorithm for the app was originally developed entirely through a mathematical simulator, but when real-world data was used, the recommendations generated by the app aligned with recommendations provided by physicians, or were still considered safe, more than 99% of the time. In addition, improved glucose control was achieved. This was determined after 100 weeks of testing conducted in four-week trials.

Each trial involved 16 patients with type 1 diabetes and combined information from a continuous glucose monitor or wireless insulin pen with the app. Nearly 68% of the time, the recommendations generated agreed with those of physicians.

These findings are important because they show that the app may be effective in supporting individuals with type 1 diabetes in reducing risk of hypoglycemia by better managing insulin administration and blood glucose levels between appointments with their endocrinologist. Larger clinical trials are needed over longer periods of time to further determine the accuracy and effectiveness of the app in relation to other treatment strategies.

Technology is becoming increasingly more popular and advanced in terms of managing type 1 diabetes. There are numerous devices and apps already available and more in the works. This gives individuals with type 1 diabetes a wider variety of options in order to determine what works best for their needs and lifestyle.

Though not involved with this study, the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) strives to continue growing understanding of type 1 diabetes and improving prevention and treatment methods as well as one day finding a cure. Early-career scientists can receive critical funding through the DRC to pursue novel research studies around T1D. Learn more about current projects and how to support these efforts at http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

Learn More +

Glucose-Sensing Neurons Work Together to Manage Blood Sugar

Whereas insulin is necessary to combat high blood glucose levels, a different hormone is necessary to manage low ones: glucagon. This hormone helps to regulate glucose production and absorption bringing glucose levels back into an acceptable range.

A recent study from researchers at Baylor University and other institutions found that there is a specific group of neurons in the brain that may play an integral role in blood sugar regulation and preventing hypoglycemia. Within the ventrolateral subdivision of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus region, there are estrogen receptor-alpha neurons that are also glucose-sensing.

What the researchers found particularly interesting was that half the neurons became more active when blood sugar levels were high (glucose-excited), and the other half became more active when blood sugar levels were low (glucose-inhibited). Furthermore, each group of neurons used a different ion channel to regulate neuronal firing activities. However, they both led to the same result – increasing blood glucose levels when they were low – even though they were activating different circuits in the brain. This leads to a perfect balance in managing blood sugar.

The next step in the study is to investigate whether the fact that all of the neurons in this specific group that expressed estrogen receptors play a role in the glucose-sensing process. In turn, this could lead to more gender-specific studies to determine differences in neuronal function when it comes to blood sugar regulation.

One important factor to note is that all of these studies were conducted on hypoglycemic mice. The researchers did not identify whether the process is believed to be the same in humans.

This is another step forward in better understanding how diabetes affects the body, brain, and functioning. Diabetes Research Connection strives to empower early-career scientists in pursuing novel, peer-reviewed studies related to type 1 diabetes by providing up to $50K in funding. Research is focused on the prevention and cure of type 1 diabetes as well as minimizing complications and improving quality of life for individuals living with the disease. Find out how to support these efforts by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

Learn More +

Generating Pancreatic Islet Organoids to Treat Type 1 Diabetes

In individuals with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells. Without a naturally occurring supply of insulin to manage glucose, blood-glucose levels can quickly spiral out of control leading to hypo- or hyperglycemia. If left untreated, this can become potentially fatal.

A recent study found a way to generate an abundance of pancreatic islet organoids that are glucose-responsive and insulin-secreting. As such, they can help with management and potential reversal of type 1 diabetes. Researchers identified a cluster of protein C receptor positive (Procr+) cells in the pancreas of adult mice. These cells have the ability to differentiate into alpha, beta, omega, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) cells, with beta cells being the most abundant.

The Procr+ islet cells can then be cultured to generate a multitude of islet-like organoids. When the organoids were then be transplanted into adult diabetic mice, they were found to reverse type 1 diabetes. More research is necessary to determine if human pancreatic islets contain these same Procr+ endocrine progenitors and a similar process could be used to treat type 1 diabetes in humans.

As scientists delve deeper into the cellular impact of the disease and how different cells respond and can be manipulated, it opens new doors to potential treatments or cures for type 1 diabetes. Though not involved in this study, this is the type of cutting-edge research that the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is committed to supporting. Early-career scientists can receive up to $50,000 in funding through DRC for novel, peer-reviewed research aimed at preventing and curing type 1 diabetes, minimizing complications, and improving the quality of life for individuals living with the disease. To learn more and support these efforts, visit https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

Learn More +

Examining the Impact of Intensive Glucose-Lowering Treatment on Hypoglycemia Risk

One of the key indicators in effective diabetes management is HbA1c level. In healthy, non-diabetic adults, the target range is 4% to 5.6%, while in individuals with diabetes, the goal is to maintain an HbA1c level of less than 7%. However, some treatment guidelines aim for achieving levels of 5.6% or less, or between 5.7% and 6.4%.

Striving for these lower HbA1c levels through intensive glucose-lowering therapy may prove more risky than beneficial, though, especially for adults who are considered clinically complex, according to a recent study. These individuals may benefit from less intensive treatment and slightly higher target HbA1c levels to reduce risk of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for severe hypoglycemia.

The study included data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 2011 to 2014, and “participants were categorized as clinically complex if 75 years or older or with 2 or more activities of daily living limitations, end-stage renal disease, or 3 or more chronic conditions.” They were considered to be engaged in intensive treatment if their HbA1c level was below 5.6% and they took any glucose-lowering medication, or if their HbA1c level was between 5.7% and 6.4% and they took two or more glucose-lowering medications.

In addition to NHANES data, other population-level studies were included as well when comparing data and outcomes. Overall, overtreatment was estimated to occur in up to 50% of non-clinically complex patients and up to 60% of clinically complex patients.

For the study, 662 nonpregnant adults who had diabetes and maintained HbA1c levels of less than 7.0% were used to represent around 10.7 million adults with diabetes in the United States. Of these participants, 20.1% were age 75 or older, 21.5% were treated intensively, and 32.3% were considered clinically complex. The researchers estimated that over two years, there would be 31,511 hospitalizations and 30,954 emergency department visits for severe hypoglycemia, and that around 4,774 hospitalizations and 4,804 ED visits could be directly attributed to intensive glucose-lowering therapies.

The study found that aggressive treatment of diabetes to achieve lower HbA1c levels could actually have a negative effect on overall health, especially for clinically complex patients who experienced severe hypoglycemic events. It is recommended that many elderly and clinically complex patients avoid intensive treatments and follow relaxed glycemic targets. Recommended HbA1c levels should be evaluated on an individual basis and take into account patient health, comorbidities, and clinical complexity.

There were limitations to this study, and researchers note that “true numbers are likely to much higher” regarding hypoglycemic events and the number that are directly attributable to intensive glucose-lowering therapy.

Type 1 diabetes management is a complex process, and researchers are continually advancing their understanding of the disease and effective treatment options. Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) follows advancements in the field and potential impact on individuals living with T1D.

DRC supports novel, peer-reviewed research studies regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life for those living with the disease. Learn more about current projects and how to donate to these efforts by visiting http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

Learn More +

Nasal Glucagon Approved to Treat Severe Hypoglycemia

If you or someone you love is living with type 1 diabetes, you know that, in addition to blood sugar becoming too high, having it drop too low is a serious concern as well. When blood sugar falls below 70mg/dL, individuals often start feeling the effects such as shakiness, sweating, chills, lightheadedness, weakness, blurry vision, or tiredness.

If blood sugar continues to drop, it can lead to severe hypoglycemia where the person may be unable to treat their low blood sugar themselves due to confusion, seizures, or loss of consciousness. When this occurs, the individual with T1D often relies on medical personnel or a trained bystander to administer glucagon. Traditionally, glucagon is injected into the arm, thigh, or buttock. However, the medication must first be reconstituted, which involves injecting the contents of the syringe into a vial, mixing it together, then drawing it back into the syringe to inject into the person. In an emergency situation, this can be a lot of steps to follow and there is plenty of room for error.

In an effort to simplify the process, Eli Lilly and Company has manufactured the first ever FDA-approved nasal glucagon, Baqsimi. The device is pre-loaded with 3 mg of glucagon and ready to use for patients age 4 and older. The medication stimulates the liver to release glucose and was found to effectively reverse insulin-induced hypoglycemia based on three studies encompassing more than 200 participants. There were no major safety concerns, and the potential adverse reactions were similar to those of injectable glucagon with the addition of watery eyes and nasal congestion. However, nasal glucagon is not recommended for individuals with pheochromocytoma or insulinoma.

Nasal glucagon provides yet another option for individuals with T1D to quickly – and more easily – treat episodes of severe hypoglycemia. It is simple to use because there is no reconstitution, multi-step processes, or injections necessary. The drug is expected to hit the U.S. market around the beginning of September 2019.

We are excited to see this new product come to market and is interested to see how it impacts diabetes care and management for individuals who experience severe hypoglycemia.

Learn More +

Unlimited access to all the essential project updates latest diabetes research news, and more.