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Gut Microbiome

Researchers Examine Gut Bacteria in Children for Risk Factors for T1D

In an effort to better understand how type 1 diabetes may develop, researchers took a closer look at how gut health changes from infancy through childhood and into adulthood. They used data collected through The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in Youth (TEDDY) study, which utilized reports from Finnish, German, Italian, Mexican, American, and Turkish children. This particular study on gut bacteria focused on 783 children between the ages of three months and five years from Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States.

Some of the factors they examined were whether children were breastfed or formula fed and for how long, any illnesses they contracted, antibiotics they took, environmental changes, and life experiences. Their gut microbial profile was determined through stool samples. One interesting finding was that when there were more Bacteroides species and a decreased production of short-chain fatty acids, there was an increased susceptibility to islet autoimmunity (IA) or type 1 diabetes (T1D).

The researchers found that the gut microbiomes differed greatly between participants, and there was a marked difference in children who were breastfed versus those that were not, as well as once solid foods were introduced into their diet. Breastfeeding showed higher levels of an enzyme that helps with milk fermentation, while solid foods increased enzymes that help metabolize fiber. In addition, participants who had taken oral antibiotics showed disrupted microbial stability along with decreases in some strains of Bifidobacterium. However, early probiotic supplementation helped protect control subjects against islet autoimmunity.

All of these factors may play a role in the development of islet autoimmunity or T1D. This study has increased awareness of the role that environmental factors may play in T1D along with genetics. There are still numerous issues this study did not address, but it is a strong starting point for further research, especially when it comes to the influence of breastfeeding and oral antibiotics on the development of T1D.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is interested to see how this study may impact future research in T1D and furthering the understanding of factors related to disease development and prevention. The DRC supports early career scientists pursuing novel research related to the prevention and treatment of T1D as well as improved quality of life for individuals living with this disease. Learn more about current studies and how to help by visiting http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
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Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
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