DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Using Saliva to Monitor Blood Glucose Levels

Traditional blood glucose monitoring for type 1 diabetes has involved using finger sticks to draw and test a small droplet of blood. This can leave fingers sore and calloused as testing occurs multiple times throughout the day to keep blood sugar in check. In addition, it requires a variety of supplies, and lancets used to draw blood must be disposed of safely and properly.

A recent study found that there may be a non-invasive method of monitoring blood sugar that is easier to collect and test: saliva. Researchers found that saliva contains numerous biomarkers that could make it a feasible alternative to blood. In addition, testing is conducted using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy rather than the reagents that are necessary when blood is used. That makes saliva a more sustainable and eco-friendly option as well. In early testing, using saliva was 95.2% accurate in monitoring blood sugar.

Regular testing and monitoring of blood sugar is essential for individuals with type 1 diabetes to reduce risk of hypo- or hyperglycemia as well as diabetic ketoacidosis and other complications. However, many people do not enjoy constant finger sticks. Using saliva and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy or other technology could become a non-invasive, less painful option. This process is still in early stages of testing, and more research is needed to determine its efficacy and how exactly it could be used by patients.

Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how this form of blood glucose monitoring evolves moving forward and what it could mean for individuals living with type 1 diabetes. It is another step toward providing more management options and better meeting the needs of individuals with diabetes.

Though not involved with this study, the DRC is committed to providing critical funding for early-career scientists pursuing research related to type 1 diabetes. This could include topics focused on improved diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and management of the disease, as well as minimizing complications, enhancing quality of life, and finding a cure. To learn more and support these efforts, visit https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Exploring the Use of Targeted Proteins in Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Currently, the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes is the administration of insulin, but this is not a perfect solution. Since the body is unable to produce enough – or in some cases any – insulin on its own, individuals are tasked with carefully determining when and how much they need to keep blood sugar levels in check. This in itself can be challenging, and too much or too little insulin can lead to potentially life-threatening hyper- or hypoglycemia.

In addition to controlling blood sugar, insulin also helps regulate ketones within the blood. Ketones are created when lipids are broken down by the liver because the body is lacking glucose. Increased ketone levels can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Trouble controlling fat in the blood can put individuals at a greater risk for cardiovascular problems.

However, a recent study by researchers at the University of Geneva in Switzerland reveals that combining insulin with high doses of the protein S100A9 may improve regulation of glucose as well as lipids. Though it has only been tested in insulin-deficient diabetic mice thus far, the researchers are in the process of gaining approval for phase I human clinical trials. Other studies have already shown that there is a reduced risk of diabetes in individuals with higher levels of S100A9, so they are hopeful that this protein can play an integral role in diabetes management as well.

Another interesting discovery that the researchers made was that S100A9 was only effective when cells with TLR4 receptors were present as well. At this point, they are unsure exactly what the relationship is and why TLR4 is necessary for the process to work. However, their study leads the way toward reducing the amount of insulin necessary to effectively control blood glucose and ketone levels by combining it with the S100A9 protein.

Though not involved in this study, Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how it progresses once human clinical trials begin as it has the potential to impact treatment for millions of people living with type 1 diabetes. The DRC supports the advancement of research and treatment through providing critical funding to early career scientists pursuing novel research studies for the disease. Find out how to support these efforts and learn more about current projects by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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