DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Could Insulin Management be Controlled with an App?

Determining the appropriate amount of insulin to administer in response to drops in blood sugar can be challenging, but it is something that individuals with type 1 diabetes must do daily in order to manage their health. If left untreated, low blood sugar (or hypoglycemia) can be potentially fatal.

A team of researchers and physicians at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) are looking to improve diabetes management through a new app called DailyDose. While there are similar types of apps that exist, what sets DailyDose apart is that has demonstrated statistically relevant outcomes through multiple clinical studies. The AI algorithm for the app was originally developed entirely through a mathematical simulator, but when real-world data was used, the recommendations generated by the app aligned with recommendations provided by physicians, or were still considered safe, more than 99% of the time. In addition, improved glucose control was achieved. This was determined after 100 weeks of testing conducted in four-week trials.

Each trial involved 16 patients with type 1 diabetes and combined information from a continuous glucose monitor or wireless insulin pen with the app. Nearly 68% of the time, the recommendations generated agreed with those of physicians.

These findings are important because they show that the app may be effective in supporting individuals with type 1 diabetes in reducing risk of hypoglycemia by better managing insulin administration and blood glucose levels between appointments with their endocrinologist. Larger clinical trials are needed over longer periods of time to further determine the accuracy and effectiveness of the app in relation to other treatment strategies.

Technology is becoming increasingly more popular and advanced in terms of managing type 1 diabetes. There are numerous devices and apps already available and more in the works. This gives individuals with type 1 diabetes a wider variety of options in order to determine what works best for their needs and lifestyle.

Though not involved with this study, the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) strives to continue growing understanding of type 1 diabetes and improving prevention and treatment methods as well as one day finding a cure. Early-career scientists can receive critical funding through the DRC to pursue novel research studies around T1D. Learn more about current projects and how to support these efforts at http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Expanding Type 1 Diabetes Research Through Marmoset Models

It is not uncommon for researchers to use animal models for initial research before transitioning to human clinical trials. Many animals’ systems are biologically similar in nature to humans and respond in similar ways to various diseases and medications. Often mouse models are used for diabetes research, but other species such as nonhuman primates (NHP) are also advantageous. While various types of monkeys and baboons have been used to study diabetes pathogenesis and treatment, there was previously not a marmoset model.

In a recent study, researchers successfully induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in marmosets. They conducted a partial pancreatectomy and administered streptozotocin (STZ) to decrease and destroy insulin-producing beta cells. This led to the marmosets having higher sustained blood glucose levels (above 200 mg/dL) and the inability to manage their condition through natural insulin production. Instead, they were injected with exogenous human insulin which brought their glucose levels back into the target range. Researchers found that they had a high sensitivity to human insulin making them a valuable NHP model.

Multiple glucose and insulin tolerance tests were conducted to determine how the diabetic marmosets responded compared to normal marmosets and whether they would be suitable candidates for future testing regarding islet transplantation. Continuous glucose monitors (CGM) were used to compare normal marmosets with diabetic marmosets as well, further showing that diabetic marmosets had consistently higher blood glucose levels, especially following meals, much like humans with type 1 diabetes.

While additional research is necessary, researchers believe that marmoset models could play an integral role in type 1 diabetes research and the advancement of preclinical testing. They were able to effectively induce diabetes in the marmosets and control it using human insulin, so the next step would be to move to cell transplantation trials. Eventually these transplant models may translate to human clinical trials and enhance diabetes treatment options.

It is these types of studies and use of animal models that help to advance scientists’ understanding and treatment of type 1 diabetes and allow them to work toward a cure. Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is interested to see how marmoset models will influence the future of diabetes care.

DRC is committed to supporting early career scientists in pursuing novel, peer-reviewed research regarding type 1 diabetes. Researchers can receive up to $75K in funding for their projects allowing them to move forward with their work. Learn more about current projects and how to help by visiting http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Exploring the Use of Targeted Proteins in Managing Type 1 Diabetes

Currently, the most effective treatment for type 1 diabetes is the administration of insulin, but this is not a perfect solution. Since the body is unable to produce enough – or in some cases any – insulin on its own, individuals are tasked with carefully determining when and how much they need to keep blood sugar levels in check. This in itself can be challenging, and too much or too little insulin can lead to potentially life-threatening hyper- or hypoglycemia.

In addition to controlling blood sugar, insulin also helps regulate ketones within the blood. Ketones are created when lipids are broken down by the liver because the body is lacking glucose. Increased ketone levels can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. Trouble controlling fat in the blood can put individuals at a greater risk for cardiovascular problems.

However, a recent study by researchers at the University of Geneva in Switzerland reveals that combining insulin with high doses of the protein S100A9 may improve regulation of glucose as well as lipids. Though it has only been tested in insulin-deficient diabetic mice thus far, the researchers are in the process of gaining approval for phase I human clinical trials. Other studies have already shown that there is a reduced risk of diabetes in individuals with higher levels of S100A9, so they are hopeful that this protein can play an integral role in diabetes management as well.

Another interesting discovery that the researchers made was that S100A9 was only effective when cells with TLR4 receptors were present as well. At this point, they are unsure exactly what the relationship is and why TLR4 is necessary for the process to work. However, their study leads the way toward reducing the amount of insulin necessary to effectively control blood glucose and ketone levels by combining it with the S100A9 protein.

Though not involved in this study, Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how it progresses once human clinical trials begin as it has the potential to impact treatment for millions of people living with type 1 diabetes. The DRC supports the advancement of research and treatment through providing critical funding to early career scientists pursuing novel research studies for the disease. Find out how to support these efforts and learn more about current projects by visiting https://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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