A common strategy used by researchers in treating type 1 diabetes (T1D) is to destroy or deactivate immune cells that mistakenly attack insulin-producing beta cells. There have been many variations on this approach over the years, but effectiveness has been limited. Typically, these autoreactive cells reemerge. However, tackled this issue from a different angle instead of looking at how to increase certain protective cells.
Researchers, including Daniel Moore who works with the Diabetes Research Connection, found that IgMs have immunoregulatory properties that help to limit inflammatory responses and decrease autoreactive B lymphocytes. Islet-reactive B lymphocytes have been found to produce anti-islet antibodies linked to the development of stage 1 T1D. IgM may also help to stimulate the production of regulatory T cells.
When administered in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, purified IgM was able to prevent the development of diabetes and increase regulatory T cells. However, IgM that was taken from pre-diabetic mice was not as effective. IgM obtained from Swiss Webster donor mice (recognized as healthy, not pre-diabetic, mice) was highly effective in reversing hyperglycemia and preventing the onset of diabetes. The researchers also used human IgM from healthy donors and found similar results.
The study shows the potential effectiveness of healthy donor IgMs in promoting normal immune homeostasis, preventing diabetes occurrence, and reversing new-onset diabetes. While immunoglobulin therapy is not a new concept, it usually contains low levels of IgM, whereas this study focused on higher levels of purified IgM. More research is necessary to further explore the potential of donor polyclonal IgM for the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Daniel Moore, a senior author on the study, is a scientist associated with the Diabetes Research Connection (DRC). The DRC is committed to funding novel, peer-reviewed research focused on preventing and curing T1D as well as improving quality of life for those with the disease. It has played a role in supporting dozens of projects. To learn more about current studies, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.