DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Scientist Using Microscope

Researchers Improve Cell Conversion to Support Diabetes Treatment

One of the methods of treating type 1 diabetes that researchers have been exploring is using patients’ own cells. They found that by converting stem cells into insulin-producing beta cells and then transplanting them into patients, it could stimulate the body to generate its own insulin. However, one of the challenges they faced is that beta cells only made up around 30 percent of the cells in the mixture following conversion.

Researchers in Douglas Melton’s lab at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute may have found a way to increase this percentage. A recent study found that by using single-cell sequencing, they were able to identify what the other 80 percent of cells in the mixture were. Then, by applying various molecular biology approaches, they could sort the cells based on expression patterns. Since beta cells contain a specific protein that other cells do not, they had another way to filter these cells out of the mix and increase the overall concentration that would be implanted into patients with type 1 diabetes.

Scientists at Semma Therapeutics also found a way to collect insulin-producing beta cells by separating all of the cells and then allowing them to cluster back together through their natural attraction to the same type of cell. This also increased the concentration of beta cells, and they could create a mixture that was around 80 percent beta cells versus the previous 30 percent.

The researchers are currently conducting more tests to determine what balance of beta cells versus other cells is most effective for regulating beta cell function and stimulating the production of insulin. However, now they have a greater understanding of the cell makeup during the conversion process and how to separate specific cell types.

This is another step toward improving treatment options for type 1 diabetes and potentially finding a cure. Advanced research is necessary for creating change. The Diabetes Research Connection provides funding for novel, peer-reviewed research studies focused on the prevention, treatment, and cure of type 1 diabetes, as well as improving quality of life for individuals living with the disease. Early career scientists can receive up to $50K to support their research.

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Biology Close Up Insturment

Enteroviruses May Be Linked to Higher Type 1 Diabetes Risk

As with many diseases, type 1 diabetes is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors. There is not a single cause that can be pinpointed when it comes to why insulin-producing beta cells are destroyed by the body. However, researchers are constantly discovering different factors that may contribute to this process. A recent study found that children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may have higher levels of enterovirus A (EV-A) in their gut than children without T1D.

In comparing faeces and plasma viromes and data for a birth cohort of 93 Australian children, results showed that 62 percent of children tested positive for at least one vertebrate-infecting virus. The researchers tested samples for all known vertebrate-infecting viruses, and five EV-A types came back as significantly abundant in children at the onset of T1D diagnosis than in control cases.

Viruses often survive longer in the gut than in the blood, so the prolonged presence of enteroviruses in the gut may increase the risk of these infections spreading to the pancreas. In turn, this may contribute to the body’s immune system attacking and destroying insulin-producing beta cells and triggering T1D.

The study opens doors for additional research regarding EV-A and viral load in general as it relates to T1D. These findings could potentially lead to the development of targeted vaccines for these identified viruses to help protect against the development of type 1 diabetes. It is yet another step toward understanding this complex disease and working toward a cure.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC), though not involved in this study, stays abreast of the latest research and discoveries in the field to support future advancements. The DRC provides critical funding to early career scientists to support novel, peer-reviewed studies related to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of type 1 diabetes.

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Baby Diabetes

HbA1c Levels May Influence Preterm Birth Risk

Maintaining healthy HbA1c levels is essential for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but it may be especially critical for women seeking to have children. A recent study out of the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm found that higher HbA1c levels during the periconceptional period may increase risk of preterm birth.

The study compared incidences of preterm birth for 2,474 babies born to women with type 1 diabetes, and 1,165,216 babies born to women without diabetes. They were all single births; no multiples. The researchers found that, overall, preterm birth occurred in 22.3 percent of babies born to women with T1D verses 4.7 percent of babies to women without diabetes. Broken down even further, the results revealed that the higher the woman’s periconceptual HbA1c level, the higher the risk for preterm birth. When the HbA1c level was below 6.5 percent, there was a 13.2 percent incidence of preterm birth compared to a 37.5 percent incidence when the HbA1c level was at or above 9.1 percent.

However, it is important to note that researchers found, “Preterm birth among women with T1D was strongly linked to periconceptual HbA1c levels, although women whose HbA1c levels were consistent with recommended target values were also at increased risk for preterm birth as well as other adverse pregnancy outcomes.”

This study helps to raise awareness about the risk of preterm birth for women with T1D and the importance of monitoring and managing blood sugar levels. T1D can impact many aspects of an individual’s life, and that includes pregnancy. Gaining a better understanding of these effects can support improved treatment and overall healthcare.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) stays abreast of the latest industry findings and provides critical funding for early career scientists pursuing T1D-related research. Donations from individuals, corporations, and foundations make it possible for these projects to move forward and for innovative research to continue.

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See our approved research projects and campaigns.

Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha