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Blood Sugar Levels & Syringe

Improved Blood Flow in Pancreatic Islet Cells May Help Treat Diabetes

Pancreatic islet cells play an essential role in managing blood glucose levels. These are the cells that produce insulin and control blood sugar. However, they require strong blood vessels and blood flow to work effectively. One of the challenges of trying to transplant these cells is that they lose blood vessels in the process.

Scientists mainly from Yokohama City University may have found a way to overcome this issue and improve the efficacy of transplanted pancreatic islet cells. To improve blood flow, they cultured pancreatic islet tissue with both endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. Endothelial cells are what line blood vessels and mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to develop into different types of cells. This combination led to pancreatic islet tissue that contained its own network of blood vessels.

When transplanted into mice with severe type 1 diabetes, the tissue allowed for a strong blood flow which in turn helped to better control blood glucose levels. More than 90% of diabetic mice implanted with this tissue survived for at least five days. The diabetic mice who only received pancreatic islet cells but not the tissue with the blood vessel network only had a survival rate of around 40%. And in those mice who did not receive any type of transplant, nearly all passed away.

The scientists are in the process of expanding their research beyond the use of endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells to exploring the potential of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. They are hopeful that this will lead to another treatment option for individuals with type 1 diabetes.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how this research progresses and the results it yields in terms of treating and managing type 1 diabetes. While not involved with this particular study, the DRC supports early career scientists in pursuing peer-reviewed, novel research projects geared toward the treatment, prevention, and cure of type 1 diabetes, as well as improving quality of life for those living with the disease. Click to learn more about current projects and provide support.

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Bystander T Cells May Play A More Active Role in Managing Type 1 Diabetes

There are many types of cells that all play a different role in how the body works. Some of these cell functions are very well known, while others are still somewhat mysterious. For years, scientists have thought that bystander T cells were just that – bystanders, since it was unclear what their exact purpose was. A team of researchers led by Matthias von Herrath, M.D., a professor in the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology’s Division of Developmental Immunology and a diabetes researcher, may have shed more light on what these cells actually do.

von Herrath and his team found that while the initial belief was that bystander T cells increased inflammation associated with type 1 diabetes and the destruction of insulin-producing islet cells, they may actually do quite the opposite. They found that these cells interfere with the destruction of pancreatic beta cells rather than supporting it. CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CLTs) target specific protein fragments in islet cells and then destroy the cells. During this process, the pancreata are flooded with other T cells that do not detect protein fragments, which are referred to as the bystander T cells.

New studies by von Herrath and his team have discovered that in mouse models, the bystander T cells actually have an immunosuppressive effect and decrease the effect of cell-killing CLTs. When mice were injected with equal amounts of cell-killing and bystander CLTs, the researchers found that there was “little cell death, and the specific CLTs recruited to the pancreas became less harmful.” When decreased amounts of bystander cells were injected, there was more cell destruction as well as the occurrence of diabetes symptoms including hyperglycemia. Two possible theories are that bystander T cells limit access to beta cells as they flood the cell protecting them from cell-killing CLTs, or possibly that the bystanders interfered with the signals sent to cell-killing CLTs, so, therefore, the destruction is not as severe.

The study demonstrates that regulatory T cells are not the only cells that help counteract inflammation, though they are the most widely recognized for having this effect. With this new insight into bystander T cells, researchers may be able to leverage them in future treatment for type 1 diabetes. Additional research is necessary to explore this potential.

The Diabetes Research Connection, for which von Herrath is a member of the Scientific Review Committee, is committed to supporting novel research studies for type 1 diabetes. The DRC provides funding to support early career scientists in carrying out research projects geared toward preventing and curing type 1 diabetes as well as minimizing complications and improving quality of life for those living with the disease. Click to learn more about current projects and provide support.

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Breaking Down the Prevalence of Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes affects people of all ages and races throughout the United States, but just how many people are impacted? According to a self-report study of 33,028 adults with a response rate of 54.3%, approximately 21 million adults (8.6%) in the United States were living with type 2 diabetes in 2016, and approximately 1.3 million (0.55%) were living with type 1 diabetes.

The study, conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) asked participants a variety of questions regarding being diagnosed with diabetes and what methods were used to manage it. Responses were classified as type 1, type 2, or “other” type of diabetes. There were 182 participants who reported having type 1 diabetes but did not claim to take any type of insulin, so they were categorized as type 2 respondents. Out of the 33,028 participants, 3,519 reported having diabetes, and 211 of those reported having type 1 diabetes. The study also found that T1D was more prevalent in men than women (0.64% vs. 0.46%), and as well as in non-Hispanic whites versus Hispanics (0.67% and 0.22% respectively).

Study authors hope that “knowledge about national prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes might facilitate assessment of the long-term cost-effectiveness of public health interventions and policies aimed at improving diabetes management and help to prioritize national plans for future type-specific health services.”

Though it may seem like a small percentage who have T1D, it is still more than a million people who struggle each day with this disease, and more than a million people who would benefit from advanced research and treatment options. The Diabetes Research Connection seeks to further knowledge, research, and interventions regarding type 1 diabetes as well and supports novel research studies focused on this condition. Early career scientists can receive valuable funding through the DRC to support their research projects. Click to learn more about current projects and provide support.

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See our approved research projects and campaigns.

Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha