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42 Factors that affect BG

42 Factors That Affect Blood Glucose

42 Factors That Affect Blood Glucose

Welcome to the Diabetes Research Connection, your trusted platform for valuable insights on diabetes management. Here we explore the above, “42 Factors That Affect BG”. Understanding these factors is crucial for anyone diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, health care providers, family and friends about how our bodies regulate blood sugar levels.


1. Carbohydrate Quantity: Understanding carbohydrate intake is important for those with diabetes. Consider portion control and learn to read food labels. Remember, balancing carbohydrates with other food groups can help to stabilize blood sugar levels.

2. Carbohydrate Type: Opt for complex carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. These types are digested more slowly, preventing sudden blood sugar spikes.

3. Fat: Limit the amount of saturated and trans fats, which can lead to insulin resistance. Instead, choose heart-healthy unsaturated fats found in foods like avocados, nuts, and olive oil.

4. Protein: Include lean protein sources like chicken, fish, tofu, or lentils into your meals. Protein doesn’t raise blood sugar levels significantly and can help to keep you feeling satiated.

5. Caffeine: Monitor your body’s reaction to caffeine. Some people with diabetes find that caffeine causes blood sugar fluctuations. If that’s the case, reduce your caffeine intake.

6. Alcohol: If you choose to drink alcohol, do so in moderation and never on an empty stomach, as it can cause hypoglycemia. Choose low-sugar mixers to avoid blood sugar spikes.

7. Meal Timing: Regular meal and snack times can prevent blood sugar swings. Avoid skipping meals or eating late at night.

8. Dehydration: Make sure you’re drinking plenty of water throughout the day. Dehydration can negatively impact blood sugar levels.

9. Personal Microbiome: A healthy gut microbiome is believed to influence blood sugar control. Incorporate probiotic-rich foods like yogurt and fermented foods into your diet.


10. Medication Dose: Always take the correct dosage of your medications as prescribed by your healthcare provider. Any changes can cause fluctuations in your blood sugar levels.

11. Medication Timing: Take your medications at the same time every day. This consistency can greatly help in managing your blood sugar levels.

12. Medication Interactions: Be aware that certain medications can interact with your diabetes medication and impact your blood sugar levels. Always inform your healthcare provider about all the medications you’re taking.

13. Steroid Administration: Steroids can cause increased blood sugar levels. If you’re prescribed a steroid, monitor your blood sugar closely and report any prolonged high readings to your healthcare provider.

14. Niacin (Vitamin B3): While niacin is important for overall health, it can raise blood sugar levels. Make sure you are getting an appropriate amount, and monitor your blood sugar if you take a supplement.


15. Light Exercise: Regular light exercise, such as walking or gentle yoga, can help control blood sugar levels. Try to be active every day, but remember to monitor your blood sugar before, during, and after exercise.

16.High Intensity & Moderate Exercise: Exercise is key in diabetes management. High-intensity workouts like HIIT can improve insulin sensitivity, while moderate activities like brisk walking help regulate glucose levels. However, monitor your blood sugar before, during, and after exercise to avoid hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting a new fitness regimen.

17. Level of Fitness/Training: Your overall fitness level can impact how your body uses insulin. Regular exercise can improve insulin sensitivity and help manage blood sugar levels. However, intense training may cause short-term blood sugar spikes, so monitor your levels and adjust your food intake or insulin dosage as needed.

18. Time of Day: Blood sugar can fluctuate throughout the day. Monitoring your blood sugar levels at various times can help you understand your body’s patterns and adjust your routine accordingly.

19. Food & Insulin Timing: For those taking insulin, coordinating your meals and insulin dosage is crucial. The timing will depend on your specific needs and the type of insulin you’re using.


20. Too Little Sleep: Lack of sleep can disrupt your body’s insulin usage. Try to get at least 7-9 hours of sleep each night to help regulate your blood sugar.

21. Stress & Illness: Stress and illness can cause blood sugar levels to spike. Find stress management techniques that work for you, such as meditation or deep breathing exercises, and remember to monitor your blood sugar closely when you’re sick.

22. Recent Hypoglycemia: If you’ve recently experienced a bout of hypoglycemia, your body may release hormones that cause your blood sugar to rise. It’s important to monitor your blood sugar levels closely to prevent a “rebound” high.

23. During-Sleep Blood Sugars: Overnight blood sugar levels can fluctuate. Consider using a continuous glucose monitor to track your levels while you sleep.

24. Dawn Phenomenon: This is a surge in hormones that happens in the early morning, often causing an increase in blood sugar. Adjusting medication or food intake before bed can help manage this.

25. Infusion Set Issues: If you use an insulin pump, issues with the infusion set, like kinks or blockages, can affect insulin delivery and cause blood sugar fluctuations. Regularly check your infusion set to prevent issues.

26. Scar Tissue & Lipodystrophy: If you inject insulin, rotate your injection sites to avoid developing scar tissue, which can impact insulin absorption.

27. Intramuscular Insulin Delivery: Avoid injecting insulin into the muscle, as it may be absorbed too quickly, causing blood sugar fluctuations. Inject insulin into the fatty layer just beneath your skin.

28. Allergies: If you have food allergies, make sure you’re aware of how different foods affect your blood sugar levels. Also, some allergies can increase stress hormones, leading to blood sugar spikes.

29. A Higher BG Level (Glucotoxicity): High blood sugar can, in turn, cause blood sugar to rise further. Regular monitoring can help you prevent these spikes.

30. Periods (Menstruation): Hormonal fluctuations during your menstrual cycle can impact blood sugar levels. You may need to adjust your food intake or medication doses during this time.

31. Puberty: Hormonal changes during puberty can lead to increased insulin resistance. Regular monitoring and adjustment of medication doses can help manage blood sugar levels during this time.

32. Celiac Disease: If you have celiac disease, adhering to a gluten-free diet is important to avoid inflammation and nutrient malabsorption, which can impact blood sugar control.

33. Smoking: Smoking can increase insulin resistance and lead to higher blood sugar levels. Quitting smoking can significantly improve your blood sugar control.


34. Expired Insulin: Always check the expiration date on your insulin. Expired insulin is less effective and can lead to higher blood sugar levels.

35. Inaccurate BG Reading: Regularly calibrate your blood glucose meter and check strips for accuracy to ensure your readings are accurate.

36. Outside Temperature: Extreme cold or hot temperatures can impact your blood sugar levels and how your body uses insulin. Try to stay in a moderate temperature environment when possible.

37. Sunburn: Sunburn can cause stress on the body, leading to higher blood sugar levels. Protect your skin when spending time in the sun.

38. Altitude: High altitudes can impact blood sugar control. If you’re traveling to a high-altitude area, monitor your blood sugar closely and discuss any necessary medication adjustments with your healthcare provider.


39. More Frequent BG Checks: Frequent blood glucose checks can help you better understand your body’s patterns and make necessary adjustments to your diet or medication routine.

40. Default Options and Choices:

Plate/Bowl Size: The size of your plate or bowl can significantly influence portion control, a crucial factor in maintaining healthy blood sugar levels. Larger dishware tends to make us serve and consume more food than we need. By opting for smaller plates and bowls, you can naturally limit portion sizes, reducing overall carbohydrate intake and better managing your blood glucose levels.

Visual Prompts: Visual prompts play a significant role in our dietary choices. Keeping healthy food options visible and within reach encourages better food choices. Conversely, keeping high GI foods, like white bread and white rice, out of immediate sight can discourage unnecessary snacking, assisting in blood sugar control. A well-arranged fridge or pantry, with fresh fruits, vegetables, and whole grains at eye level, can serve as a constant visual prompt for healthy eating.

41. Decision-Making Biases:

Present Bias (Hyperbolic Discounting): Present bias refers to the tendency to prioritize immediate gratification over long-term benefits—a mindset that can sabotage diabetes management. For example, you might choose a sugary treat for immediate satisfaction, disregarding the long-term impact on your blood sugar levels. It’s essential to be aware of this bias and consciously make choices that favor long-term health.

Loss Aversion: This is the tendency to fear losses more than we value gains. In the context of diabetes, loss aversion might manifest as a fear of losing out on favorite foods. Shifting this mindset to focus on the gains, like improved health and energy levels when you control your blood sugar, can be a powerful motivator.

Negativity Bias: Negativity bias is the inclination to focus more on negative outcomes than positive ones. If you’ve had a bad experience with high or low blood sugar, you may become overly cautious or anxious. Remember, everyone with diabetes has good and bad days. Focus on the progress you’ve made and the tools you have to manage your condition.

Selective Matching: Selective matching involves making decisions based on memorable, though not necessarily representative, past experiences. For instance, if you had a hypoglycemic episode after a particular activity, you might avoid it completely. It’s important to remember that many factors can influence blood sugar levels, and what happened once might not happen again.

Representative Bias: Representative bias is the tendency to draw conclusions based on stereotypes or preconceptions. For example, assuming that all “sugar-free” products are good for blood glucose control can lead you astray. Always check the nutritional information, as these products can still contain other carbohydrates or unhealthy ingredients.

42. Family Relationships & Social Pressure: Communicate with your family and friends about your diabetes management needs. They can provide support and help you stick to your health goals.

In conclusion, many factors contribute to the intricate balance of blood glucose regulation. Understanding these factors aids in managing diabetes effectively and maintaining optimal health. As always, our Diabetes Research Connection team encourages everyone, especially those diagnosed with type 1 or 2 diabetes, to educate themselves about the numerous factors affecting blood glucose. It’s not just about counting carbs; it’s about comprehending the complexity of your body and the many elements that can influence your blood glucose levels.

Adam Brown, a recognized contributor at diaTribe, meticulously compiled this list of 42 factors that influence blood glucose in Type 1 Diabetes. You heard it right, not one, not two, but 42 distinct variables. In his article, Adam states “I know what you’re thinking – 42 factors that affect blood glucose? Are you kidding?!”

The answer is yes, it is indeed a formidable task, but it’s essential to see it as a testament to the daily challenges we face and overcome.

To learn more about this AMAZING list and organization, click here.

If you struggle with meal planning, consider a diabetes specialist online nutritionist!



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What's next in Diabetes Tech?

What is Up-and-Coming in Diabetes Technology?

A new year is underway, and with that comes the emergence of advances in diabetes technology. Companies like Tandem, Dexcom, Medtronic, Insulet, and Senseonics are continuing to move forward with projects that have been in the works for several years, as well as new ones. They are constantly striving to improve how diabetes is managed and to enhance the quality of life for those living with the disease.

Here are just a few of the technology changes in the works:

Closed loop systems. Many companies are still working to refine these processes. It is difficult to create an effective system that requires no user interaction, but they are getting closer. Currently, they are focused on reducing the amount of user input necessary and turning to sensor technology to measure and track blood glucose levels, automatically dose according to individual needs, and predict glucose levels. No fully closed loop systems are expected to be released in 2018, however.

Smartwatch and smartphone compatibility. Many people nowadays own smartphones and smartwatches. Companies are leveraging these connections to bring glucose monitoring right to people’s fingertips. With improved sensors and Bluetooth technology, data can be delivered directly to these devices through apps that allow for better tracking and monitoring of glucose levels. Users would also have the option of sharing this data with others, such as healthcare providers. There are a variety of apps in development with features to improve diabetes management.

Improved sensors. Speaking of sensors, they’re changing too. Industry leaders are looking to make sensors smaller yet more effective and accurate. They are also trying to extend the length of wear and reduce the number of daily calibrations needed. In turn, this would allow individuals more freedom and require less interaction with these systems while still managing blood sugar.

Increased FDA approval. There are some devices and technologies that are approved internationally but are not yet available in the United States. Or, approvals in the United States are stricter. International companies are looking to expand the availability of certain products in the U.S. and ensure that their diabetes care technology meets required standards.

Overall, there are numerous collaborations occurring between companies within the diabetes vertical that could have a positive impact on how the disease in managed moving forward. Companies are working together to bring about more advanced technology and monitoring systems that will make it easier for individuals to track not only their glucose levels, but also insulin use, meals, activity, and other factors that impact their diabetes care – and share it with their healthcare providers.

The Diabetes Research Connection is excited to learn more about these advancements in the months to come and see how diabetes care is changing for the future. The organization proudly supports novel research projects by early-career scientists and provides up to $50,000 in funding for studies. Click to learn more about current projects and provide support.

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Brain Differences May Impact Ability to Recognize Low Blood Sugar

Healthy adults can typically recognize when their blood sugar may be becoming too low. It triggers physical symptoms such as dizziness, sweating, weakness, and rapid heartbeat, just to name a few. Plus, their body responds by producing glucose and initiating the brain to signal for food. However, in individuals with type 1 diabetes, the brain does not always respond in this way.

A recent study found that the areas of the brain activated by low blood sugar in adults without diabetes are not the same as those in adults with type 1 diabetes. In brain scans of non-diabetic adults, areas associated with reward, motivation, and decision making showed changes during brain scans. However, only half of the individuals with T1D experienced similar changes, and only in one area of the brain – the area associated with attention – and the other half experienced no changes. Their brain showed no noticeable response to having low blood sugar, which is why individuals may miss cues that others would typically pick up on.

According to Janice Hwang, M.D., assistant professor of medicine and first author on the study, “There is a progressive loss of coordinated brain response to low blood sugar as you go from healthy adult to aware to unaware. The first areas of the brain to go are associated with feeding behavior.” The researchers are hoping that these findings will lead to more effective ways of restoring low blood sugar awareness in individuals with T1D who have lost this awareness.

It is these types of discoveries that help to improve understanding of how T1D affects the brain and body and allows researchers to develop more effective ways of treating and managing the condition. The Diabetes Research Connection supports early career scientists striving to advance research regarding the treatment, prevention, diagnosis, and management of T1D. Researchers can receive up to $50,000 in funding to apply toward their project. Click to learn more about current projects and provide support.

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Viral Gene Therapy

Could Reprogramming Cells Help Treat Type 1 Diabetes?

More than 300 million people around the world are living with diabetes. Currently, there is no cure, but scientists are continually researching and testing different methods for treating and managing this disease. One of the major obstacles faced in treating type 1 diabetes is that the body’s immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells, whether these cells are naturally occurring or introduced through medical treatment.

Some researchers are looking at ways to reprogram the body’s own cells to function as insulin-producing cells to help better control blood sugar. The human pancreas contains small niches where hormone-making cells reside. Within these niches, two different cells predominate: alpha cells, which make glucagon, and beta cells, which make insulin. In individuals with type 1 diabetes, insulin-producing cells are destroyed, but glucagon cells are not.

Scientists developed a method using viruses as carriers to deliver two genes that are present in insulin but glucagon cells to the glucagon cells allowing the cells to be able to produce insulin. Glucagon cells are a good option for this process because they are similar to insulin cells and appear in abundance in islets within the pancreas already. A decrease in these cells as they were reprogrammed did not appear to affect glucose metabolism.

These experiments have been performed in NOD mice, which are mice that develop diabetes very close to human diabetes. Following the experiment, the diabetes disease appeared to have resolved in the diabetic NOD mice thanks to the new source of cells making insulin in their pancreas. However, human application of this technique will take time since targeting specific cells is complicated, and the use of viral elements creates side effects that need to be resolved.

It is this type of research and these experiments that lead to breakthroughs in the treatment, management, prevention, and improvement in the quality of life for individuals living with type 1 diabetes. Though not involved in this particular study, the Diabetes Research Connection supports early-career scientists through funding for novel research on type 1 diabetes. Learn more about current projects and support their advancement by visiting http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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See our approved research projects and campaigns.

Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha