A1C tests show an average blood sugar level over the past two to three months. This is important not only for helping to diagnose type 1 and type 2 diabetes but also for managing the disease. Healthy individuals without diabetes should have an A1C level below 5.7%. For those with diabetes, a level of 7% or less while using insulin is the target and considered being well controlled. If A1C levels are higher, it may mean that changes are needed to the person’s treatment regimen.
A recent study of participants in the T1D Exchange Clinic Network found that even with high quality care, many people are still not meeting A1C goals. Out of more than 20,000 participants, only 21% of adults had an A1C below 7%, and only 17% of youth had an A1C below 7.5%. These statistics are likely to be even lower for the general U.S. population with T1D who do not participate in the T1D Exchange Clinic Network.
On a positive note, the study found that those who use continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and insulin pumps tended to have better outcomes. Since the 2010-2012 study, use of CGMs increased by 30%, and use of insulin pumps increased by 6%. Compared to non-CGM users, those who used the device had A1C levels that were about 1% lower.
Furthermore, these devices also had an impact on hypoglycemic episodes and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Only about 5% of CGM and pump users experienced severe lows compared to 7% of non-CGM users and 9% of non-pump users. CGM and pump users also had fewer incidences of DKA.
While there is still more work to be done to better control diabetes and A1C levels, the use of CGMs and insulin pumps seem to be beneficial for many individuals using them. With increased awareness and education about these options, as well as improved access, there is the potential to benefit even more individuals with T1D and help manage A1C.
The Diabetes Research Connection is always looking for new and innovative research projects to fund that support advancement in understanding T1D as well as preventing and curing this disease and improving quality of life for those living with it. Early career scientists can receive a grant ranging from $25,000 to $75,000 for their research project.