DRC & Research News

This page shares the latest news in T1D research and DRC’s community.

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Diabetes Audit

Factors Identified for More Effective Type 1 Diabetes Care

Managing type 1 diabetes is a complex process. Every person is different and must figure out what strategies and devices work best for their care, and that involves working together with their healthcare provider. Results of a recent audit have identified some key factors that contribute to better diabetes management from a provider perspective.

Participants in the study included top clinics that care for more than 500 individuals with type 1 diabetes. Results found that at up to 40 percent of patients achieved HbA1c levels of 58mmol/mol or lower at some centers, while in other centers only 20 percent of patients hit this target. The data was analyzed in an effort to identify factors that may have contributed to these differences.

Some of the strategies that have been found effective include providing structured education and dedicated pump clinics for patients to support them in diabetes care. More than half of the centers that participated in the audit reported having nurses and staff that were specially trained in type 1 diabetes care. Several of the centers also offered support services via phone and online to patients and focused on improving access to continuous glucose monitors (CGMs).

It may also be beneficial for treatment centers to partner with other services including psychological care and community organizations to improve outcomes for patients. Taking a collaborative approach could support patients in managing health across multiple areas thereby enhancing overall type 1 diabetes care.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC), though not involved in this study, is committed to advancing knowledge and treatment when it comes to type 1 diabetes. The DRC provides critical funding to support early-career scientists in conducting peer-reviewed, novel research studies. To learn more and contribute to these efforts, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Insulin Pump

Advancing Diabetes Management Technology

Over the years, treatment options for type 1 diabetes have greatly expanded. From the development of continuous glucose monitors to insulin pumps to artificial pancreas systems, researchers are striving to improve the lives of those living with this disease. However, there have also been challenges regarding the accuracy, usability, and lifespan of these options.

One issue that exists is effectively coordinating treatment options to work together. Depending on the device an individual uses, it may not be compatible with a product from a different company, or even from the same company. There may be multiple steps involved in reading and responding to results in order to effectively manage type 1 diabetes.

JDRF is looking toward easing these challenges by partnering with SFC Fluidics, Inc., a medical technology company, to create an interoperable insulin pump. This device would provide continuous insulin therapy through a tubeless system, but unlike other technology, it would be an open protocol system. That means that it would be able to communicate and share information seamlessly with other devices such as CGMs or third-party technology. This would be a huge step forward in potentially improving diabetes care and management. JDRF and SFC Fluidics are currently developing and testing this technology as well as reviewing liability and regulatory requirements.

The Diabetes Research Connection (DRC) is excited to see how this project unfolds and what it could mean for the future of diabetes management. It is through the tireless work of researchers, scientists, and medical professionals that treatment options have continued to improve and more is understood about this complex disease. The DRC provides funding to early career scientists pursuing novel research studies related to type 1 diabetes in an effort to prevent and cure the disease as well as improve quality of life for those living with T1D. To learn more and support current research projects, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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Diabetes Milestone Timeline

Next Stop Cure? A Quick History of Diabetes Research

From an insulin pump that’s the size of a backpack to stem cells hitching rides on what’s the size of a band-aid, diabetes research has come a long way. It is not without tireless efforts from the scientific community, keen investors, visionaries and donors, alike, who have moved the needle.

With research funding, people managing this challenging disease have received tools that help them to live better lives. Every advancement or milestone has elevated our understanding of Type 1, achieved improved management and has gotten us one step closer to an actual cure. That’s why donating to diabetes research is so important — it’s the only way we’ll eliminate this disease.

Diabetes research milestones

The timeline of advancements

1889: Pancreatic diabetes discovered

Oskar Minkowski and Joseph Von Mering met accidentally in a library in 1889. Striking up a conversation, they began to debate whether the pancreas helped digest and absorb fats. Performing a pancreatectomy on a dog that same night, they found the dog developed glycosuria, a condition associated with diabetes that causes the production of a lot of urine. Minkowski found the urine was 12% sugar. They then depancreatized another dog and found that prevented hyperglycemia.

1921: Discovery of insulin

In 1921, Frederick Banting and Charles Best closed off the pancreatic ducts of a dog then removed the pancreas. They crushed, froze, and salted it. Then they gave this substance to a diabetic dog and found the dog’s blood sugar dropped significantly.

1922: Purification of insulin

James Collip refined Banting and Best’s insulin extraction and purification method. The new substance was tested in the first human in 1922. 14-year old Leonard Thompson was in a critical condition. He was given an insulin injection in his buttocks. This had a negative effect on him and he grew sicker. Collip worked to improve the insulin’s quality and Thompson received another injection soon after. This time, it lowered his blood sugar and saved his life.

1959: Type 1 and Type 2

Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow measured how much insulin was in a diabetic’s blood. This led to the discovery that some diabetics could still make insulin, which split the diabetic world into two sections—Type 1 and Type 2.

1961: Glucagon introduced

Eli Lilly and Company succeeded in creating a pure form of glucagon, a hormone that elevates blood glucose levels. The introduction of glucagon as an injectable treatment became life-saving in emergency situations of severe hypoglycemia.

1963: The first pump

Designed by Dr. Arnold the pump that looks like a backpack delivers both glucagon and insulin.

1966: First pancreas transplant

The University of Minnesota Hospital was the first to successfully transplant a pancreas into a human. The success rate of these transplants has increased since then as better surgical techniques and immune suppressant drugs improved.

1967: Laser treatment for diabetic blinding

William Beetham and Lloyd Aiello created a laser treatment that, over the next five years, radically changed diabetic retinopathy care.  

1976: A1C Test developed

Researchers at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston perfected the A1C test, which can provide information about a diabetic’s average blood glucose control over the previous 2-3 months.

1978: First human insulin synthesized

Genentech discovered how to synthesize human insulin from E. coli. The scientists had to synthesize genes then put them in the E. coli bacteria. This forced the E. coli to produce insulin chains. Two chains were then combined and a human insulin molecule was made. They turned each individual bacterium into a manufacturing plant for human insulin.

1986: Insulin Pen

Insulin pens were introduced, replacing disposable syringes. Now diabetics could vary their dose. The pen also gave them more privacy as it was less obvious what the pens were for.

1990: Insulin external pump

These pumps continuously monitor sugar levels and allow the wearer more freedom and control over their sugar levels.

1999: First continuous glucose monitor (CGM)

MiniMed received FDA approval for the first CGM device in the USA. The company was later bought by Medtronic. Initially, it was called a “retrospective CGM device” and was meant to look back at a 72 hours monitoring of blood sugars.

2006: First inhaled insulin is FDA approved

Exubera was the first inhaled insulin. It was put on the market in 2006 but taken off in 2007 due to low sales. Since then researches have created Affreza, an improved version that hit the market in 2014.

2014: Stem cell islets implant

Viacyte created a therapy called VC-01, which implants a collection of young stem cells in an immune-protective container under the skin. The young stem cells develop into insulin-producing cells that release insulin when the body needs it.

2016: Hybrid closed-loop system

Medtronic receives FDA approval for the first hyped closed-loop system which connects CGM and insulin pump. It learns what an individual’s insulin needs are and takes action to minimize both high and low glucose levels. It delivers variable insulin 24 hours a day.



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Why support diabetes research


Less than one hundred years ago, Type 1 diabetes was a mysterious, daunting disease. Parents watched their children’s health quickly deteriorate as they awaited their inevitable early demise. By the early 20th century, medical advancements, stemming from intensive research, completely transformed the fate of people living with Type 1 diabetes.

In 1889, upon removing and then replacing the pancreas of a dog, scientists found that that the pancreas played a major role in preventing high blood glucose, paving the way for future diabetes treatment advancements. One of these major advancements came over thirty years later in 1921-22, radically changing the lives of thousands: the discovery and purification of animal insulin. While this insulin greatly increased the lifespan of those with Type 1, it caused painful allergic reactions in some because of its foreign origin from pigs and cows. However, by 1978, researchers discovered how to create synthetic human insulin from E. coli bacteria, allowing increased insulin absorption without the allergic side effects.

Before the introduction of the disposable syringe in 1956, and then insulin pens in the 1980s, needles for insulin injections were commonly sharpened at home with a grinding stone. Since 1990, insulin pens can even be replaced by an external insulin pump, allowing people with T1D more freedom and control.

The first successful pancreas transplant occurred in the University of Minnesota Hospital in 1966. Pancreas transplants have provided a life-saving option for those with Type 1 diabetes with extremely poor health, and they have continued progressing in refinement, with better surgical techniques and the development of improved immunosuppressant drugs.

Unfortunately, despite the advancements, the long-term complications of Type 1 diabetes are numerous. Research, however, has been effectively diminishing their severity. In 1966, a laser treatment was developed that changed retinopathy care, a common cause of blindness with those who have diabetes. The A1C test, developed in 1976, assesses overall control of blood glucose over a span of three months, thereby showing the effectiveness of a treatment plan.

A modern-day person with diabetes can utilize resources and that wouldn’t have been possible without scientific research. Medical treatments have gone from starvation diets to compact, portable devices that control, measure and track blood glucose levels every second of the day.

Diabetes research is relatively young yet is advancing exponentially. The life of a person diagnosed with diabetes in the last decade and someone diagnosed fifty years ago is incomparable. A cure would mean liberation for people with Type 1 diabetes from constant injections, constant monitoring, and constant worry. However, it is completely unattainable without outside support. Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the United States with a multitude of costly and life-threatening complications.  Unfortunately, research for this disease still remains one of the least funded by the national government.

In order to be successful, in order to change and save lives, diabetes research requires funding. When someone supports an organization that funds research, they become a part of positive change. Support of scientific research has already transformed the world we live in: we have already cured many of the devastating diseases of the 20th century such as polio and smallpox. Be a part of the profound scientific evolution that is occurring in the 21st century. Supporting diabetes research isn’t just funding scientists and laboratories — it’s providing hope for the millions of children and adults affected by this chronic illness.

Disease prevalence versus funding

Diabetes only receives 3% of the total funding from the NIH (National Institute of Health), compared to cancer (16%) and HIV/AIDS (9%). However, there are 29 million people living with diabetes in the US, compared to 1.2 million living with HIV/AIDS and 13.4 million living with either a current or past experience with cancer. With these statistics, The NIH spends around $38 each year per person with diabetes, $417 per person with HIV/AIDS, and $2,583 per person with cancer.

Short-term complications

In addition to long-term major complications, immediate dangers may occur if a person with Type 1 diabetes has low or high blood glucose levels. These include the following:

  • Severe Hypoglycemia: extremely low blood sugars can cause seizures, loss of consciousness or death. Death from unrecognized low blood sugar upon going to sleep accounts for 6% of all deaths in people with Type 1 diabetes under forty-years old.
  • Ketoacidosis: If someone with T1D does not receive insulin, the body will break down fat to produce energy, releasing ketones into the bloodstream. When ketone levels become too high, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can cause vomiting and dehydration, and even cause one to fall into a coma.

Long-term complications of Type 1

People with Type 1 diabetes may have access to insulin and blood glucose monitors, but such treatment still cannot completely prevent future complications. Common complications include:

  • Eye disease: diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in diabetics. High blood sugar damages the blood vessels in the back of the eye, eventually causing vision loss.
  • Kidney disease: High blood sugar levels overwork the kidneys filtration system. A damaged filter allows waste products to build up in the blood, and the kidneys begin to fail (end-stage renal disease).
  • Nerve damage: Symptoms of diabetic neuropathy can range from pain to complete numbness in the legs or feet, causing severe disabling.
  • Heart disease: people with Type 1 diabetes have four times the risk of suffering a heart attack.

Everyday management of Type 1

To avoid long-term and short-term health risks, Type 1 diabetes must be managed diligently. People with T1D may have a specialized treatment plan, however, there are certain consistencies for all people with Type 1. Insulin must be taken after every meal and blood glucose levels must be checked several times a day. Special attention must be paid to the foods that a person with Type 1 diabetes consumes so that their insulin dosage is appropriately calibrated. As early as infancy, such intensive daily procedures become the responsibilities of every person managing Type 1. Better care means a better quality of life with Type 1. Diabetes research is the key to improving methods of care and ultimately finding a cure.

DRC provides funding to early-career scientists pursuing novel research studies related to type 1 diabetes in an effort to prevent and cure the disease as well as improve quality of life for those living with T1D. To learn more and support current research projects, visit http://diabetesresearchconnection.org.

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See our approved research projects and campaigns.

Role of the integrated stress response in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis
In individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-producing beta cells are spontaneously destroyed by their own immune system. The trigger that provokes the immune system to destroy the beta cells is unknown. However, accumulating evidence suggest that signals are perhaps first sent out by the stressed beta cells that eventually attracts the immune cells. Stressed cells adapt different stress mitigation systems as an adaptive response. However, when these adaptive responses go awry, it results in cell death. One of the stress response mechanisms, namely the integrated stress response (ISR) is activated under a variety of stressful stimuli to promote cell survival. However, when ISR is chronically activated, it can be damaging to the cells and can lead to cell death. The role of the ISR in the context of T1D is unknown. Therefore, in this DRC funded study, we propose to study the ISR in the beta cells to determine its role in propagating T1D.
Wearable Skin Fluorescence Imaging Patch for the Detection of Blood Glucose Level on an Engineered Skin Platform
A Potential Second Cure for T1D by Re-Educating the Patient’s Immune System
L Ferreira
Validating the Hypothesis to Cure T1D by Eliminating the Rejection of Cells From Another Person by Farming Beta Cells From a Patient’s Own Stem Cells
Han Zhu
Taming a Particularly Lethal Category of Cells May Reduce/Eliminate the Onset of T1D
JRDwyer 2022 Lab 1
Can the Inhibition of One Specific Body Gene Prevent Type 1 Diabetes?
Is Cholesterol Exacerbating T1D by Reducing the Functionality and Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells?
Regeneration Ability of Residual Beta Cells
A Call to Question… Is T1D Caused by Dysfunctionality of Two Pancreatic Cells (β and α)?
Xin Tong
Novel therapy initiative with potential path to preventing T1D by targeting TWO components of T1D development (autoimmune response and beta-cell survival)
flavia pecanha